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9/12.6 - Form V. تَفَعُّلًا tafa’u-lan

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  Section 12.6 - Form V. تَفَعُّلًا tafa’u-lan   Form 4 is called تَفَعُّلًا  ( tafa’u-lan ) .   Past tense of this form is تَفَعَّلَ ( ta-fa’-ala ) and imperfect tense is يَتَفَعَّلُ ( ya-ta-fa’-alu ) and its source ( Masdar ) is تَفَعُّلًا tafa’u-lan . The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with effort/preparation for the purpose of getting something for yourself. For example, عَلِمَ a-li-ma  to تَعَلَّمَ ta’al-la-ma . عَلِمَ ali-ma means to know . When changed to تَعَلَّمَ , ta-al-la-ma it means to learn.  

9/12.7 - Form VI. تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-'ul

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Section 12.7 - Form VI. تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-ul   Form V is called تَفَاعُلًا  ( ta-faa- ‘ ul ) .   Past tense of this form is تَفَاعَلَ ( ta-faa-'ala ) and imperfect tense is يَتَفَاعَلُ ( ya-ta-faa-‘a-lu ) and its source ( Masdar ) is تَفَاعُلًا ta-faa-‘u-lan . The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with effort/preparation for the purpose of getting something for yourself. For example, نَصَرَ na-sa-ra to تَنَاصَرَ ta-na-sa-ra . نَصَرَ na-sa-ra means to help . When changed to تَنَاصَرَ ta-na-sa-ra , it means to help each other. The inflections for this are shown in the table below:  

9/12.8 - Form VII - اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan

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Section 12.8 - Form VII. اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan   Form VI is called اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aal-an . Past tense of this form is اِفْتَعَلَ if-ta-'ala and imperfect tense is يَفْتَعِلُ yaf-ta-'i-lu and its source Masdar is اِفْتِعَالًا if-ti-'aa-lan . The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with effort/preparation for the purpose of getting something for yourself. For example, كَسَبَ ka-sa-ba to اِكْتَسَبَ ik-ta-sa-ba . كَسَبَ ka-sa-ba means to earn / gain / gather / profit / acquire / achieve. When changed to اِكْتَسَبَ ik-ta-sa-ba , it means to acquire / earn (through hardship).   The inflections for this are shown in the table below:  

9/12.9 - Form VIII - اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-'aa-lan

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Section 12.9 - Form VIII. اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-aa-lan   Form VII is called اِنْفِعَالًا ( in-fi-‘aal-an ) .   Past tense of this form is اِنْفَعَلَ ( in-fi-‘a-la ) and imperfect tense is يَنْفَعِلُ ( yan-fa-‘i-lu ) and its source ( Masdar ) is اِنْفِعَالًا in-fi-‘aa-lan . The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from transitive Verb فِعلُ الْمُتَعَدِّىْ ( feil-ul mu-ta-ad-di ) to a فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ feil-ul laazim (intransitive). For example, كَسَرَ ka-sa-ra to اِنْكَسَرَ in-ka-sa-ra . كَسَرَ ka-sa-ra means to break . When changed to اِنْكَسَرَ in-ka-sa-ra , it means to be broken. The inflections for this are shown in the table below:  

9/12.91 - Form X. اِسْتِفْعَالًا Istef-‘alan

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  Section 12.10 - Form X. اِسْتِفْعَالًا Istef-‘alan   Form VIII is called اِسْتِفْعَالًا ( is-tef-‘aa-lan ) .   Past tense of this form is اِسْتَفْعَلَ ( is-taf-‘ala ) and imperfect tense is يَسْتَفْعِلُ  ( yas-taf-‘ilu ) and its source ( Masdar ) is اِسْتِفْعَالًا . The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of an action with requesting/asking something for yourself. For example, غَفَرَ gha-fa-ra to اِسْتَغْفَرَ is-tagh-fa-ra . غَفَرَ gha-fa-ra means to forgive . When changed to اِسْتَغْفَرَ is-tagh-fa-ra , it means to ask for forgiveness. The inflections for this are shown in the table below:

9/13.0 - Types of Nouns and Derivatives اَلْمُشْتَقَّاتُ

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    Types of Nouns Nouns are divided into three types:   a.      The Source (Verbal Source اَلْمَصْدَرُ ) This is technically a          part of the Derivative called  المُشْتَق مِنْهُ and المُشْتَق points to          it. b.      The Derivative اَلْمُشْتَقُّ c.       Rigid اَلْجَامِدُ .  Now, let us describe these in more detail. A.      The Source اَلْمَصْدَرُ  

9/13.1 - Derivative 1 Subject Noun اِسْمُ الْفَاعِلِ

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  Section 13.0 – Introduction To The Derivatives الْمُشْتَقَّ ا ت ُ   As we mentioned in chapter 3, There are two classes of Nouns in general. There are words that are made with certain rules using the root alphabets. These are called the Derivates or اَلْمُشْتَقَّاتُ al-mush-taq-qaa-tu . And then there are Nouns which do not follow any rules and we are dependent on the way native speakers use them. These are called Rigid or جَامِدٌ jaa-mi-dun . This chapter covers the Derivatives اَلْمُشْتَقَّاتُ al-mush-taq-qaa-tu and some of the derivates. There are 9 derivatives commonly used. Following section describe these nouns. This is a subject that one should carefully study and remember, because when you find nouns in the Qur'an, you have to figure out which class it belongs.  

9/13.2 - Derivative 2 Object Noun اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ is-mul maf’ooli

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  Section 13.2 - Derivative 2 Object Noun اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ is-mul maf’ooli   Object Noun is a derivative of a root which defines the object of an act. For example, words like the one what was heard, read, spoken, work was done, who was helped, who drank etc. Below is a list of Verbs and object Nouns used in Qur’an extensively:   The scale of مَفْعُوْلٌ maf-’oo-lun , for example مَضْرُوْبٌ mad-roo-bun meaning the one who was hit.  

9/13.3 – Derivative 3 Noun of Circumstance اِسْمُ الْظَّرْفِ

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  Section 13.3 – Derivative 3 Noun of Circumstance اِسْمُ الْظَّرْفِ ismul-zar-fi   This is a derivative that has the meaning of time or place when an act is happening. When, the act has time associated with it, then it is called - Noun for Time اِسْمُ الزَّمَانِ ismuz-za-maa-ni , and if the act is associated with a place where the act is happening then it is called Noun for Place اِسْمُ الْمَكَانِ ismul-ma-kaa-ni .   Usually, these Nouns are on a scale of مَفْعَلٌ maf-a-lun but there are some which use the scale of مَفْعِلٌ . Maf-i-lun . The plural is always with the scale of مَفَاعِلُ ma-fa-i-lun . A few examples are given below.

9/13.4 – Derivative 4 Adjective Noun اَلصِّفَةِ اِسْمُ

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  Section 13.4 – Derivative 4 Adjective Noun اَلصِّفَةِ   اِسْمُ is-mus-sif-fa-ti   This is a Noun that is used to describe a quality. This includes colors اَلْوَانٌ al-waa-nun and defects that have separate scales عُيَوْبٌ ‘ uyoo-bun . Some of the scales that are used commonly are described below.   Meaning Example Scale Blissful, delighted سَعِيْدٌ   Say-‘eed-un فَعِيْلٌ   Fa-‘ee-lun abundant كَثِيْرٌ   Ka-thee-run Despotic, tyrant ظَلُوْمٌ     Za-loo-mun فَعُوْلٌ   Fa-’oo-lun Uneducated, ignorant جَهُوْلٌ   Ja-hoo-lun Trustworthy, reliable صَدُوْقٌ     Sa-doo-qun Cheerful, happy فَرحَانُ   Far-haa-nu فَعْلَانُ   Fu’-laa-nu Angry, annoyed غُضْبَانُ     Ghuz-baa-nu Exhausted, fatigued تَعبَانُ     Ta’-baa-nu

9/13.5 - Derivative 5 Superlative/Comparative Noun اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ

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  Section 13.5 - Derivative 5 Superlative/Comparative Noun اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ ismut-taf-deeli   This Noun is divided into two forms. One is Comparative التًّفْضِيْلُ الْبَعْضُ at-taf-deel-ul ba’-adu and the other is Superlative التَّفْضِيْلُ الْكُلُّ at-taf-deel-ul kul-lu .   1.      Comparative Nouns اَلتًّفْضِيْلُ الْبَعْضُ at-taf-deel-ul ba’-ad u are used generally for comparing the attributes of two described Nouns. For example, Zaid is faster than Amr or Hamid is smarter than Mahmoud. Comparative Noun in Arabic for masculine gender has the scale of af-alou أَفعَلُ af-‘alu and for the feminine gender is fou-laa فُعْلٰى fu’-laa .

9/13.6 – Derivative 6 Noun of Exaggeration اِسْمُ الْمُبَالَغَةِ

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  Section 13.6 – Derivative 6 Noun of Exaggeration اِسْمُ الْمُبَالَغَةِ Ismul mubaa-lagha-ti  

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