Showing posts from December, 2020

5.4 - Nominative Sentence Components

  Section 5.4 - Nominative Sentence جُملَةٌ اِسْمِيَّةٌ jum-la-tun is-miy-yatun Components مُتَعَلَّقُ الْخَبَرِ mu-tal-la-qul kha-ba-ri (Associate) Joined Nouns مَعْطُوْفٌ/مَعْطُوْفٌ اِلَيْهِ ma-toof-un / maa-too-fun ilai-hi (Additive/Independent)   Besides mub-tada and predicate, other components can be a part of the sentence. One of them is called مُتَعَلَّقُ الْخَبَرِ ( mu-ta-al-la-qul Khabar ) associate of the predicate .   For example, take the sentence:

5.5 - Interrogative Sentence

  Section 5.5 - Interrogative Sentences   Several Particles are used for interrogative sentences.   For those questions which can be answered in yes or no, to make a nominative sentence an interrogative one, two Particles are commonly used which are (1) هَلْ ( hull ) and (2) أَ ( aa ) .   Examples of these would be:

5.6 - Negative Sentence

  Section 5.6 - Negative Sentences - مَا maa , لَيْسَ laisa and لَا laa   To create a negative nominative sentence in Arabic, two words are used most commonly. These are مَا ( maa ) . and لَيْسَ ( laisa ) .   Ma is a Particle and laisa is called مُشَبَّهَةٌ بِالْفِعْلِ mu-shab-baha-tun bil feili .

5.7 - Negative of All Kinds

    Section 5.7 - Particle لَا For Negative of All Kinds لَا لِلنَّفِيُّ الْجِنْسِ laa lil-nafi-ul jin-si لَا laa is sometimes used to indicate that Noun right after it includes all kinds/any kind/any type and is always in the accusative state ( نَصْبٌ nas-bun ) and is used without ( اَلْ al ) implying that it is always an indefinite Noun ( نَكِرَةٌ naki-ra-tun ).  

5.8 - Particle of Call (Vocative)

  Section 5.8 - Particles of Call ( Vocative Particle ) حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ huroof-un nidaai   The word an-nidaa ( النِّدَاء ) means to call somebody. In English we use words like hey, hey you, excuse me etc. Arabic also has its own Particles and these are called Particles of call حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ ( huroof-un nidaa ) and the one who is called is a mu-na-daa ( مُنَادٰى ).  

5.9 - Emphasis in Nominative Sentence

    Section 5.9 - Emphasis in a Nominal Sentence التَّاكِيدُ فِي جُمْلَةِ الْاِسمِيَّةِ   Emphasis is one of the most important features of the Arabic language as related to the study of Al-Qur’an. There are several Particles حُرُوْفٌ ( huroo-fun ) that are used to add emphasis and sometimes multiple Particles are used in Al-Qur’an to increase the emphasis to the degree that sometimes translation into another language becomes nearly impossible. This is the beauty of the language and Allah Subhaa-nahu wa Taa’la uses various commands and states with varying degrees of emphasis in the Holy Qur’an. Emphasis is also achieved by positioning the words in a certain manner. For example, using اَلْخَبَرُ al-kha-ba-ru predicate before اَلمُبْتَدَاءُ al-mub-tadau is one way.

5.10 - Verb-like Particles

  Section 5.10 - Particles of Verbal Meaning or Verb-like Particles مُشَبَّهَةٌ بِالْفِعْلِ mushab-ba-hatun bil-feili   A.      Inna and its Sisters اِنَّ وَ أَخْوَاتُهَا inna-wa-akh-waa-tu-haa   The Arabic language has six Particles which are used for emphasis, similarity, “ but”, desire, possibility, etc. which will be described next. A noun is used after this particle and it is called the noun of (for example) inna , and then it requires a predicate ( الْخَبَرُ )   which provides the state or information regarding the noun.

6.1/6.2/6.3 - Numbers/Rules for 1-10/Rules for 11-99

    Section 6.1 – الْأَعْدَادُ Numbers ( al aa’daa-du )   Arabic numbers are translated as عَددٌ ( Adadun ) and the associated Noun is called a مَعْدُوْدٌ ( ma-dood ) .   Section 6.2 - Rules for counting from 1 through 10   1) number one and two are not used when counting. For example, كِتابٌ kitaa-bun for one book, كِتَابَانِ ki-ta-baa-ni for two books.

7.0-7.3 - Verb Basics/Root Word/Definitions/Active Voice Past Tense

  Section 7.0 - Verb فِعلٌ ( fei-lun )   The verb is a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, or happen. The main element of a Verb is that it is associated with time. In the English language, time is defined by what is called a tense, and in simple terms, these are three. Past Tense, Present Tense and Future Tense.

7.3 - Active Voice Perfect Tense (Past)

  Section 7.3 – Active Voice Past Tense الْفِعْلُ الْمَاضِىُ الْمَعْرُوْفُ   Three alphabet Root word ثُلَاثِي مُجَرَّدٌ ( thula-thi mujar-ra-dun )   As we mentioned before, 99% of Arabic words are based on three alphabet root words. These are called ثُلَاثِىْ مُجَرَّدٌ ( thulati mu-jar-radun ) meaning three and mujar-rad meaning bare. Remaining 1% are 4 alphabet root words ( رُبَاعِىْ rubaa-yee ) and five alphabet root words ( خُمَاسِىْ khu-maa-si ). We will be concentrating on the three-alphabet root word.  

7.4/7.5/7.6 - Forming Verbal Sentence/Object of Verb/Pronoun as Object

  Section 7.4 - Forming Verbal Sentence جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ ( jum-la-tul fei-li-ya-tu )   We learned that the base inflection itself can be a sentence by itself since it has a pronoun hidden in it which serves as the Actor/Subject ( فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un ) which sometimes we will call as the subject.   An important rule is that Actor/ Subject   ( فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un ) is always in a Nominative state ( رَفْعٌ raf-un ).  

7.7 to 7.14 - Compounds/Prepositions/Negative/Interrogative/(قَدْ qad)/Objects/Passive

  Section 7.7 – Compounds in a Verbal Sentence ( جُملَةُالْفِعْلِيَةُ  jum-la-tul fei'-li-yatu )   Actor/Subject ( فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun ) and object الْمَفْعُوْلُ ( al-maf’oolun ) can also be compound words in a Verbal sentence. For example:   1) Mahmoud hit Hamid’s brother :   ضَرَبَ مَحْمُوْدٌ أَخَا حَامِدٍ ( dara-ba mah-mudun akh-aa haa-mi-din ) .   Here أَخَا حَامِدٍ is a possessive compound. The translation of brother is ( أَخُوْ ) in the nominative, ( أَخَا ) in Accusative نَصْبٌ ( nas-bun ) and ( أَخِيْ ) in the genitive. Since the object is always in Accusative نَصْبٌ ( nas-bun ) state, the Mu-daaf which was Nominative رَفْعٌ ( raf-un ) in possessive compound ( أَخُوْ ) was changed to accusative ( أَخَا ).  

7.8-12 – Convert Verbal Sentence to Nominative

  Section 7.12 – Convert Verbal Sentence ( جُملةُالْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tul fei-liya-tu ) to a Nominal Sentence ( جُملةُ الْاِسْمِيَةُ jum-la-tul is-mi-ya-tu )   Sometimes, a Verbal sentence needs to be converted into a nominal sentence (for example for the purpose of using emphasis by اِنَّ inna or ل lam of emphasis which are used in nominative sentences). Depending upon whether the فَاعِلٌ  faa-'i-lun  (actor) is explicit (mentioned) or implicit (hidden) there are two different ways:

7.8-13 – Types of Objects أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ

  Section 7.13 – Types of Objects أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ   Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ Fa'i-lun is a Noun that occurs after a Verb and is associated with the meaning of the Act / Verb (فِعْلٌ fe'i-lun ) and it stands as a subject/actor ( مُسْنَدٌ إِلَيْهِ mus-na-dun ilia-hi ) for the Verb ( فِعْلٌ fe'i-lun ). For example, “ زَيْدٌ ” Zai-dun in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ da-ra-ba Zai-dun meaning Zaid hit .  

7.8-14 – Passive Voice Past Tense Verb ( مَاضِيْ مَجْهُوْلٌ)

  Section 7.14 – Passive Voice Past Tense Verb ( مَجْهُوْلٌ مَاضِيْ ) maa-di maj-hoo-lun   As described elsewhere before, an active Verb فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ ( fe'il-ul laa-zim i ) always requires an Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-'ilun to complete a sentence. These actors can be explicit Nouns or their pronouns, or implicit in the Verb itself. For example, in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ  da-ra-ba  Zaid-un meaning Zaid hit, زَيْدٌ Zai-dun is the Actor/Subject and is in Nominative رَفْعٌ  ( raf-un ) state. Or, in ضَرَبْتُ da-rab-tu meaning I hit, the pronoun I  is hidden in تُ tu .   If only ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba is used, it means he hit and the pronoun “he” is hidden in the Verb ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba . Also, some intransitive Verbs فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ feil-ul laa-zi-mi require one or more objects مَفعُوْلٌ maf’ool un . The Actor/Subject is always in a Nominative رَفْعٌ ( raf-'un ) state and the object is always in an Accusative نَصْبٌ ( nas-bun ) state. To understand the meaning

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