5.8 - Particle of Call (Vocative)


Section 5.8 - Particles of Call (
Vocative Particle) حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ huroof-un nidaai


The word an-nidaa (النِّدَاء) means to call somebody. In English we use words like hey, hey you, excuse me etc. Arabic also has its own Particles and these are called Particles of call حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ (huroof-un nidaa) and the one who is called is a mu-na-daa (مُنَادٰى).


In Arabic, Yaa (يَا) is the most commonly used Particle for calling. There are several rules that one needs to know which depend upon the mu-naa-daa.

1) Mu-naa-daa is an indeterminate Indefinite Noun)

 If mu-naa-daa is an indeterminate, indefinite Noun, then any Tanween (double harakah) is reduced to a single harakah.

-Mun-sarif-un (flexible) example:(يَا yaa) + (زَيْدٌ Zai-dun) = (يَا زيْدُ yaa Zai-du)

-Ghairu mun-sarifi (non-flexible) example:(يَا yaa) + (مُوْسٰى Moo-sa) = ( مُوْسٰى يَا yaaMoo-sa)


2) Mu-naa-daais a Definite Noun by (اَلْ al):

If mu-naa-daa is an indefinite Noun made definite by use of (اَلْ al), then Particles (ايُّهَا ayyu-ha) for masculine and (اَيَّتُهَا ayya-tu-haa) for feminine genders are used between Particle of Nidaa and Mu-naa-daa. For example:


      يَا (yaa) + الْاِنْسَانُ (al-in-saa-nu) = يَا اَيُّهَا الْاِنْسَانُ (yaa ayyu-hull insaa-nu) for male meaning O mankind


      يَا (yaa) + النّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ (an-naf-sul mut-ma-inna) =الْنّفْسُ اَيَّتُهَايَا   الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ (yaa ayya-tu-han naf-sul mut-ma-yin-na) for female meaning O reassured soul


3) Mu-naa-daa is a Possessed part مُضَافٌ (mudaaf) of a Possessive compound

If mu-naa-daa is a possessive part of a possessive compound (مُضَافٌ) then, it is changed to an Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state. For example:


 (يَا yaa) + (اُخْتُ هٰرُوْنَ ukh-tu Ha-roo-na) = (يَا اٌخْتَ هٰرُوْنَ Yaa ukh-ta Haroo-na) meaning O sister of Haroon

 (يَا yaa) + (رَبُّنَا rab-bu-naa) = (رَبَّنَا  يَا yaa rabba-naa) meaning O our Lord.


4) Mu-naa-daa is an indeterminate indefinite singular Noun

If mu-naa-daa is an indeterminate indefinite singular Noun similar to a (مُضَافٌ mu-daa-fun) then also, it changes into an accusative state (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). For example:

 (يَا yaa) + (رَاكِبٌ فَرَسٌ raa-ki-bun fa-ra-sun) = (يَا رَاكِبًا فَرَسًا yaaraa-ki-ban fa-ra-san) meaning O horse rider


5) Mu-naa-daa is a singular Noun with (اِبْنٌ ib-nun) meaning son of or (بِنْتٌ bin-tun) meaning daughter of in front, then both (اِبْنٌ ib-nun) or (بِنْتٌ bin-tun) and Mu-naa-daa go into the accusative state (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). For example:


 (يَا yaa) + ( اِبْنُ الْخَطَّابِ عُمَرُ u-ma-rubnul khat-tab) = 

(الْخَطَّابِ اِبْنَعُمَرَ  يَا   yaa uma-ribn-al khat-tabi)