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Nahw Meer English: 1.0A Title - A Guide to Arabic Sentences

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  13:37 ﴾ وَكَذٰالِكَ أَنْزلْنٰهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا   ﴿ Thus, We have revealed it to be a judgment of authority in Arabic .   Nahw Meer: An English Guide to Arabic Sentences ( Revised )   Author Meer Syed Sharif Abul Hasan Ali Bin Mohammed Al-Jurjani 770 – 816 AH

Nahw Meer English: 1.0B - Introduction

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  بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ Introduction   In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent and Most Merciful, and peace and blessings be upon His noble messenger Mohammed Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala says in Surah 54 Al-Qamar, Ayah 32: ﴿ وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْاٰنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِنْۢ مُّدَّكِرٍ ﴾ meaning “ And certainly we have made easy the Quran for remembrance, so is there anyone who will receive admonition?” And then Rasulullah Sallalahu alaihi wa Sallam said (Bukhari 4027): خَيْرُكُمْ مَّنْ تَعَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ وَ عَلَّمَهٗ                          meaning “The best amongst you are those who learn the Quran and teach it”. These have been some of my motivations to attempt this work in addition to my desire to learn and be able to read and better understand The Holy Quran.

Nahw Meer English: 1.0C - Table of Contents

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  Table of Contents   Introduction . 3 Preface for Revision 1 . 7 Syed Al-Jurjani’s Introduction . 8 Table of Contents . 9 Chapter 1 -Words and Sentences لَفْظٌ وَجُمْلَةٌ . 13 Section 1.1 – Single Words/Compounds فَصْلٌ ١. ١ – لَفْظٌ: اَلْمُفْرَدُ وَالْمُرَكَّبُ .. 14 Section 1.2 – Complete Compounds فَصلٌ ١. ٢ – اَلْمُرَكّبُ الْمُفِيْدُ . 15 Section 1.3 – Incomplete Compound فَصْلٌ ١. ٣ – اَلْمُرَكَّبُ الْغَيْرُ المُفِيْدُ . 17 Section 1 . 4 – Sentences فَصْلٌ ١. ٤ – جُمْلَةٌ . 19 Section 1 . 5 – Signs of Word Types فَصْلٌ ١. ٥ – عَلَامَاتُ الْكَلِمَاتِ .. 20  

Nahw Meer English: 1.1/1.2/1.3 - Words and Sentences لَفْظٌ وَجُمْلَةٌ

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      Section 1.1 – Single Words/Compounds  فَصْلٌ ١. ١ – لَفْظٌ: اَلْمُفْرَدُ وَالْمُرَكَّبُ                                                                  Words: Words used in the Arabic language are of two kinds: Single words مُفْرَدٌ and Compound words مُرَكَّبٌ .   Single-word مُفْرَدٌ : A word that points to a singular meaning. Another term for a single word is كَلِمَةٌ . The s e are three types :   1)         Noun اِسْمٌ – As in رَجُلٌ meaning “a man.” 2)         Verb فِعْلٌ – As in ضَرَبَ meaning “he hit.” 3)         Particle حَرْفٌ – A single letter or a combination of letters, a s in هَلْ meaning “Do you/Have you / Did you ?”  

Nahw Meer English: 1.4/1.5 - Sentences/Signs of Word Types

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      Section 1 . 4 – Sentences فَصْلٌ ١. ٤ – جُمْلَةٌ   A sentence جُمْلَةٌ must include at least two words كَلِمَاتٌ . Each word can be explicit لَفْظًا , that is, spelled out, as in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ meaning “Zaid hit” and زَيدٌ قَائمٌ meaning Zaid is standing; or Implicit تَقْدِيرًا i.e. hidden, as in اِضْرِبْ meaning “ hit!” command, in which Pronoun أَنْتَ meaning "you" is Implicit. A sentence often consists of more than two words كَلِمَاتٌ and there is no limit to the number of words كَلِمَاتٌ in a sentence.   Words in a sentence cannot be other than a Noun, Verb, or a Particle. When you see a sentence, differentiate between Nouns, Verbs, and Particles, and notice whether they are flexible مُعْرَبٌ or Inflexible مَبْنِيٌّ and whether they have active elements/Particles عَامِلٌ or the target of the action is مَعْمُوْلٌ .   By doing so, you will understand how words are joined and you will differentiate between Object مُسْنَدٌ and Subject مُسْنَ

Nahw Meer English: 2.1/2.2 - Flexible/Non-Flexible Nouns and Particles/Nouns/Verbs

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    Section 2.1 – Flexible / Non-Flexible Nouns   فَصْلٌ ٢.١ - اِسْمُ الْمُعْرَبِ وَالْمَبْنِيِّ   All words of Arabic are of two kinds: Flexible مُعْرَبٌ and Non-Flexible مَبْنِيٌّ :   مُعْرَبٌ : In this word harakah of the last alphabet changes by different active elements as in زَيْدٌ below. Note the harakah on the last alphabet in the following sentences:   1)    جَاءنِيْ زَيْدٌ meaning “Zaid came to me”. ( ٌ ) here is for Nominative status رَفْعٌ . 2)    رَأَيْتُ زَيْدًا meaning “I saw Zaid”. ( ً ) here is for Accusative status نَصْبٌ . 3)    مَرَرْتُ بِزِيدٍ meaning “I passed by Zaid”. ( ٍ ) here is for Genitive status جَرٌّ .

Nahw Meer English: 2.3 – Non-Declinable Noun

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    Section 2.3 – Non-Declinable Noun    فَصْلٌ ٢.٣ – اَلْاِسْمُ الْغيرُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ   Non-Declinable Nouns اَلْاِسْمُ الْغيرُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ are of eight types:   First: Personal Pronouns اَلْمُضْمَرَاتُ : As in أَنَا , ضَرَبْتُ , إِيّايَ , ضَرَبَنِيْ , لِيْ are for both masculine and feminine gender Pronouns for the speaker.   There are seventy Personal Pronouns اَلْمُضْمَرَاتُ :   1)    Attached Nominative مَرْفُوْعُ الْمُتَّصِلِ : There are 14 :   ضَرَبْتُ ضَرَبْنَا ضَرَبْتَ ضَرَبْتُمَا ضَرَبْتُمْ ضَرَبْتِ ضَرَبْتُمَا ضَرَبْتُنَّ ضَرَبَ ضَرَبَا ضَرَبُوْا ضَرَبَتْ ضَرَبَتَا ضَرَبْنَ     

Nahw Meer English: 3.1/3.2/3.3/3.4 - Definite/Indefinite/Gender/Quantity

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  Section 3. 1 – Definite/Indefinite Nouns فَصْلٌ ٣. ١ - الْاِسْمُ الْمَعْرِفَةُ وَالنّكِرَة Nouns اِسْمٌ are divided into two types: Definite Noun مَعْرِفَةٌ and Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ .   Definite Noun اَلْمَعْرِفَةُ : These Nouns are designed for definite things. These are of seven kinds: Personal Pronouns اَلضَّمَائرُ also called اَلْمُضْمَرَاتُ .

Nahw Meer English: 4.1 - Declinable Nouns

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A noun can have only three statuses: Nominative رَفْعٌ Accusative نَصْبٌ and Genitive جَرٌّ .   Section 4.1 – Declinable Noun  فَصْلٌ ٤ . ١  اَلْاِسْمُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ   As mentioned before in Chapter 2, Declinable Noun ‎ اَلْاِسْمُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ can accept a vowel (harakah) on the last alphabet إِعْرَابٌ under certain conditions . There are two definition s :   1) Triptote اَلْمُنْصَرِفُ : These are Nominative رَفْعٌ by Dammah ( ُ ) , Accusative نَصْبٌ by Fathah ( َ ), and Genitive جَرٌّ by Kasrah ( ِ ). 2) Diptote غَيْرُ الْمُنْصَرِفِ : These are Nominative رَفْعٌ by Dammah ( ُ ) and Accusative نَصْبٌ and Genitive جَرٌّ by Fathah ( َ )

Nahw Meer English: 5.0 - The flexibility of an Imperfect Tense إِعْرَابُ الْمُضَارِعِ

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  5.0 - The flexibility of an Imperfect Tense   إِعْرَابُ الْمُضَارِعِ A Verb can have only three statuses:   Nominative رَفْعٌ , Accusative نَصْبٌ , and Jussive جَزَمٌ . The Jussive particle when explicit has a jazm also called a sukoon ( ْ ) on the last letter.   And Imperfect Present/Future Tense is divided into four types based on flexibility:   1)Sound Empty Verb الصَّحِيْحِ الْمُجَرَّدِ فِعْلُ : It is for Nominative رَفْعٌ empty of Seen/Visible Pronouns   الْبَارِزَةِ ضَمَائرُ for Dual and Masculine Plural Absent غَائِبٌ , Masculine Plural Present حَاضِرٌ , and Speaker مُتَكَلِّمٌ Pronoun. It is given Nominative رَفْعٌ Status by Dammah, Accusative نَصْبٌ by Fathah, and Jussive جَزَمٌ with Sukoon ( ْ ) as in يَضْرِبُ هُوَ , يَضْرِبَ لَنْ and لَمْ يَضْرِبْ meaning, respectively, from left “he hits/will hit”, “he definitely will not hit” and “he did not hit”.

Nahw Meer English: 6.1 - Explixit Active Elements عَوَامِلُ اللَّفْظِيَّةِ

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  Active Elements اَلْعَوَامِلُ for flexibility are of two kinds: Explicit لَفْظَيَّةٌ and Implied مَعْنَوِيَّةٌ .   The Explicit active elements are of three kinds: Particles حَرُوْفٌ , Verbs أَفْعَالٌ , and Nouns أَسمَاءٌ . We will detail these in the next three sections in-sha-Allah so remember them well.   Section 6.1 – Active Particles in Noun  فَصْلٌ ٦. ١ - حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ فِي الْاِسْمِ   These are of five types:   First Type of Active Particles : These are 17 Genitive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْجَرِّ :

Nahw Meer English: 6.2 - Active Particles/Imperfect Tense حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ / فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ

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  Section 6.2 – Active Particles / I mperfect Tense   فَصلٌ ٦. ٢ – حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ / فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ   These are of two types: Type I : Those that are given Accusative نَصْبٌ status of which there are four:     1) أَنْ – as in أُرِيْدُ أَنْ تَقُوْمَ meaning “I would like you to stand up”. It is done with Imperfect Tense مُضَارِعٌ which has the meaning of a Verbal Source اَلْمَصْدَرُ , like أُرِيْدُ قَيَامَكَ also meaning “I would like you to stand up”. For this reason, it is called الْمَصْدَرْيَةُ أَن .   2) لَنْ – as in لَنْ يَخْرُجَ زَيْدٌ meaning “Zaid will definitely not leave”. It is meant to emphasize the negative in the future. 3) كَىْ – as in أَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ كَيْ أَسْلَمْتُ meaning “I accepted Islam so I can enter Jannah”. 4) إِذَنْ – as in إِذَنْ أُكْرِمَكَ meaning “then I will welcome you” in response to someone saying انَا آتِيْكَ غَدًا meaning “I will come to you tomorrow”.

Nahw Meer English: 6.3/6.4 - Active Particles in Verbs عَوَامِلُ الْأَفْعَالِ

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  Section 6.3 – Active Particles in Verbs   فَصْلٌ ٦. ٣ – عَوَامِلُ الْأَفْعَالِ   All Verbs are active and there are no inactive Verbs. Note the use of the word active ( عَامِلٌ ) is different from the words Active Voice ( الْمَعْرُوْفُ ) . There are two types of active verbs:   First Kind – Active Voice :   اَلْقِسْمُ الْأَوَّلُ – اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَعْرُوْفُ The Active Voice Verb [1] اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَعْرُوْفُ is either an Intransitive Verb لَازِمٌ or a Transitive Verb مُتَعَدِّيٌ with the Actor فَاعِلٌ always in Nominative status مَرْفُوْعٌ . For example, قَامَ زَيدٌ meaning “Zaid stood” is intransitive and does not require an Object مَفْعُوْلٌ . And ضَرَبَ عَمْرٌو meaning “Amr hit” is transitive and requires an Object مَفْعُوْلٌ as here the sentence raises the question of who he hit. And the Accusative نَصْبٌ is given to the following six Objective Nouns:   1.     Absolute Object or Cognate Accusative اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ الْمُطْلَقُ for emphasis/type/quantity –

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