Nahw Meer English: 2.3 – Non-Declinable Noun

 


 

Section 2.3 – Non-Declinable Noun   فَصْلٌ ٢.٣ – اَلْاِسْمُ الْغيرُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ

 

Non-Declinable Nouns اَلْاِسْمُ الْغيرُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ are of eight types:

 

First: Personal Pronouns اَلْمُضْمَرَاتُ: As in أَنَا, ضَرَبْتُ,إِيّايَ, ضَرَبَنِيْ, لِيْare for both masculine and feminine gender Pronouns for the speaker.

 

There are seventy Personal Pronouns اَلْمُضْمَرَاتُ:

 

1)   Attached Nominative مَرْفُوْعُ الْمُتَّصِلِ: There are 14:

 

ضَرَبْتُ ضَرَبْنَا ضَرَبْتَ ضَرَبْتُمَا ضَرَبْتُمْ ضَرَبْتِ ضَرَبْتُمَا ضَرَبْتُنَّ ضَرَبَ ضَرَبَا ضَرَبُوْا ضَرَبَتْ ضَرَبَتَا ضَرَبْنَ  

 

2)   Detached Nominative مَرْفُوْعُ الْمُنْفَصِلِ: There are 14:

 

اَنَا نَحْنُ أَنْتَ أَنْتُمَا أَنْتُمْ أَنْتِ أَنْتُمَا أَنْتُنَّ هُوَ هُمَا هُمْ هِيَ هُمَا هُنَّ

 

3)   Attached Accusative مَنْصُوْبُ الْمُتَّصِلِ: There are 14:

                         

ضَرَبَنِي ضَرَبَنَا ضَرَبَكَ ضَرَبَكُمَا ضَرَبَكُمْ ضَرَبَكِ ضَرَبَكُمَا ضَرَبَكُنَّ ضَرَبَهُ ضَرَبَهُمَا ضَرَبَهُمْ ضَرَبَهَا ضَرَبَهُمَا ضَرَبَهُنَّ

 

4)   Detached Accusative مَنْصُوْبُ الْمُنْفَصِلِ: There are 14:

 

 إِيَّايَ إِيَّانَا إِيَّاكَ إِيَّاَكُمَا إِيَّاَكُمْ إِيَّاكِ إِيَّاكُمَا إِيَّاكُنَّ إِيَّاہُ إِيَّاهُمَا إِيَّاهُمْ إِيَّاهَا إِيَّاهُمَا إِيَّاهُنَّ

 

5)   Attached Genitive مَجْرُوْرُ الْمُتَّصِلِ: There are 14:

 

لِي لَنَا لَكَ لَكُمَا لَكُمْ لَكِ لَكُمَا لَكُنَّ لَهٗ لَهُمَا لَهُمْ لَهَا لَهُمَا لَهُنَّ

 

6)   There are no Detached Genitive مَجْرُوْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلِ Pronouns.

 

See the table below for details on these 70 inflections:

 

Table 1 – Pronoun Inflections

Flexibility

إِعْرَابٌ

 

Gender

جِنْسٌ

Number عَدَدٌ

Attached Nominative مَرْفُوْعُ

الْمُتَّصِلِ

Detached Nominative

مَرْفُوْعُ الْمُنْفَصِلِ

Attached Accusative مَنْصُوْبُ الْمُتَّصِلِ

Detached Accusative مَنْصُوْبُ اَلْمُنْفَصِلِ

Attached Genitive مَجْرُوْرُ الْمُتَّصِلِ

Attached Genitive مَجْرُوْرُ

الْمُنْفَصِلِ

 

Speaker

مُتَكَلِّمٌ

Male/ Female مُذَكَّرٌ/ مَؤَنَّثٌ

Single

ضَرَبْتُ

أَنَا

ضَرَبَنِي

إِيَّايَ

لِي

None

Dual/Plural

ضَرَبْنَا

نَحْنُ

ضَرَبَنَا

إِيَّانَا

لَنَا

None

Present حَاضِرٌ

Male مُذَكَّرٌ

Single

ضَرَبْتَ

أَنْتَ

ضَرَبَكَ

إِيَّاكَ

لَكَ

None

Dual

ضَرَبْتُمَا

أَنْتُمَا

ضَرَبَكُمَا

إِيَّاكُمَا

لَكُمَا

None

Plural

ضَرَبْتُمْ

أَنْتُمْ

ضَرَبَكُمْ

إِيَّاكُمْ

لَكُمْ

None

Female

مَؤَنَّثٌ

Single

ضَرَبْتِ

أَنْتِ

ضَرَبَكِ

إِيَّاكِ

لَكِ

None

Dual

ضَرَبْتُمَا

أَنْتُمَا

ضَرَبَكُمَا

إِيَّاكُمَا

لَكُمَا

None

Plural

ضَرَبْتُنَّ

أَنْتُنَّ

ضَرَبَكُنَّ

إِيَّاكُنَّ

لَكُنَّ

None

Absent

غَائِبٌ

Male مُذَكَّرٌ

Single

ضَرَبَ

هُوَ

ضَرَبَهُ

اِيَّاہُ

لهٗ

None

Dual

ضَرَبَا

هُمَا

ضَرَبَهُمَا

إِيَّاهُمَا

لَهُمَا

None

Plural

ضَرَبُوْا

هُمْ

ضَرَبَهُمْ

إِيَّاهُمْ

لَهُمْ

None

Female

مَؤَنَّثٌ

Single

ضَرَبَتْ

هِيَ

ضَرَبَهَا

إِيَّاهَا

لَهَا

None

Dual

ضَرَبَتَا

هُمَا

ضَرَبَهُمَا

إِيَّاهُمَا

لَهُمَا

None

Plural

ضَرَبْنَ

هُنَّ

ضَرَبَهُنَّ

إِيَّاهُنَّ

لَهُنَّ

None

 

Second: The demonstrative Pronouns أَسْمَاءُ الْإِشَارَةِ[1]:

 

ذَا، ذَانِ، ذَيْنِ، تَا، تِيْ، تُهْ، ذِہْ، ذِهِي، تِهِي، تَانِ، تَيْنِ، أُوْلَاءِ بِالْمَدِّ، أُوْليٰ بِالْقَصْرِ

 

Here, for example, ذَا in هٰذَا and ذَانِin هٰذَانِ.

 

See the table below for more details.

 

 

Table 2 – Demonstrative Pronoun Near and Far

 

 

Genderجِنْسٌ

Single مُفْرَدٌ

Dualمُثَنّٰى

Plural جَمْعٌ

Nominative رَفْعٌ

Accusative/Genitive

نَصْبٌ/جَرٌّ

Nearقَرِيْبٌ

Male مُذَكَّرٌ

هٰذَا This

هٰذَانِ These two

هٰذَيْنِ These two

هٰؤُلٓاءِ These

Female مَؤَنَّثٌ

هٰذِہِ This

هَاتَانِ These two

هَاتَينِ These two

Far بَعِيْدٌ

Male مُذَكَّرٌ

ذٰلِكَ That

ذٰنِكَ Those two

ذَيْنِكَ Those Two

اُوْلٰٓئِكَ Those

Female مَؤَنَّثٌ

تِلْكَ That

تَانِكَ Those two

تَيْنِكَ Those two

                                                                     

Third: The Relative Pronouns أَسمَاءُالْموصُوْلَةِ:

 

اَلَّذَيْ، اَللَّذَانِ، اَللَّذَيْنِ، اَلَّذِيْنَ، اَلَّتِيْ، اَللَّتَانِ، اَللَّتَيْنِ، اَلَّاتِيْ، اَلَّوَاتِيْ، مَا، مَنْ، أَيٌّ، أَيَّةٌ

Note that Al-Quran has used two lams for dual pronouns.

 

See the table below for the details:

 

 

Table 3 – Relative Pronouns

 

Single مُفْرَدٌ

Dualمُثَنّٰى

Plural جمْعٌ

Nominative رَفْعٌ

Accusative/Genitive نَصْبٌ/جَرٌّ

Maleمُذَكَّرٌ

اَلَّذَيْ The one who

اَللَّذَانِ Those two who

اَللَّذَيْنِ Those two who

اَلَّذِيْنَ Those who

Femaleمَؤَنَّث

 اَلَّتِيْ The one who

اَللَّتَانِ Those two who

اَللَّتَيْنِ Those two who

اَلَّاتِيْ، اَلَّوَاتِيْ Those who

 

-        اَلْأَلِفُ وَالَّامُ (اَلْ) meaning اَلَّذِيْ in الْفَاعِلِ اِسْمُ” Actor Noun” فَاعِلٌ and اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ ” Object Noun” as in اَلضَّارِبُ meaning “the one who hit” and اَلْمَضْرُوَبُ meaning “the one who was hit”.

 

-        ذُوْ means اَلَّذِي in the language of Bani Tai, a tribe in Arabia. For example, جَاءَنِيْ الَّذِيْ ضَرَبَكَ is ضَرَبَكَ ذُوْ جَاءنِيْ meaning “the one who hit you, came to me”.

 

-        أَيٌّ and أَيَّةٌ are Flexibleمُعْرَبٌ

 

 Fourth: The Actor Nouns أَسْمَاءُالْأَفْعَالِ. These are of two kinds:

1)   With the meaning of Imperative Imperfect Tense Verb اَلْأَمْرُالْحَاضِرُ as in [2]رُوَيْدَ,بَلْهَ, حَيَّهَلْ, هَلُمَّ

2)   With the meaning of Past Tense Verb اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَاضِيُّ as in [3] هَيْهَاتَand شَتَّانَ.

 

Fifth: The Nouns of Sound أَسْمَاءُالْأَصْوَاتِ. These are not permanent Nouns by themselves but they provide reasoning for other meanings as in:

 أَحْ أَحْ، اُفْ، بَخَّ، نَخَّ، غَاقَ [4]

 

Sixth: The adverbs أَسْمَاءُالْظُّرُوْفِ. These are of two kinds:

 

1) Adverb of Time ظَرْفُ الزَّمَانِ:

 

إِذْ، إِذَا، مَتٰى، كَيْفَ، أَيَّانَ، أَمْسَ، مُذْ، مُنْذُ، قَطُّ، عَوْضُ، قَبْلُ، بَعْدُ

With meanings from the right: then, then, when, how, when, yesterday, Ago, Ago (also), whenever, whenever (also), before, after.

 

The last two are Non-Flexible مَبْنيٌّ when they are both Possessed part مُضَافٌ of the Possessive Compound and “Possessor مُضَافٌ إِلَيْهِ” part of the Possessive Compound is skipped مَحْذُوْفٌ and meaning is intended. As Allah SWTSays in The Holy Quran, Surah Ar-Room, Ayah 4:

﴿للهِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَ مِنْۢ بَعْدُ

meaning “command in all things is for Allah before and after”. Here شَيٍّ كُلَّ meaning “all things” is skipped مَحْذُوْفٌbut the meaning is implied.

 

2) Adverb of place ظَرْفُ الْمَكَانِ:

 

حَيثُ meaning “where”, قَدَّامُ meaning “in front of”, تَحْتُ meaning “below” and فَوَقَ meaning “above” with the condition that both are Possessed مُضَافٌ, and Possessor إِلَيْهِ مُضَافٌ is skipped مَحْذُوْفٌ and meaning is intended.

 

Seventh: The hidden Demonstrative Pronoun أَسْمَاءُالْكِنَايَةِ: As in كَمْ“how many” and كَذَا “so many” and these two are used for counts; كَيْتَand ذَيْتَ are used in conversational speech as in “this and that”.

 

Eighth: The Structural Compound مُرَكَّبُ الْبِنَائيْ: As in the number أَحَدَ عَشَرَ for eleven. This has been discussed in incomplete اَلْمُرَكَّبُ الْغيْرُ الْمُفِيْدُ.

 

 

 

۞۞۞

 



[1] These are the non-declinable type nouns.

[2] رُوَيْدَ with the meaning of give respite, بَلْهَ meaning leave , حَيَّهَلْ meaning come,هَلُمَّ meaning come.

[3] هَيْهَاتَmeaning go away, شَتَّانَ meaning parted.

[4] أَحْ أَحْimplies chest pain, اُفْ for regret, بَخَّ for happy, نَخَّ sound for making a camel sit, غَاقَ for a crows sound.


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