Nahw Meer English: 6.3/6.4 - Active Particles in Verbs عَوَامِلُ الْأَفْعَالِ




 


Section 6.3 – Active Particles in Verbs  فَصْلٌ ٦. ٣ – عَوَامِلُ الْأَفْعَالِ

 

All Verbs are active and there are no inactive Verbs. Note the use of the word active (عَامِلٌ) is different from the words Active Voice (الْمَعْرُوْفُ). There are two types of active verbs:

 

First Kind – Active Voice:  اَلْقِسْمُ الْأَوَّلُ – اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَعْرُوْفُ

The Active Voice Verb [1]اَلْفِعْلُ الْمَعْرُوْفُis either an Intransitive Verb لَازِمٌor a
Transitive Verb مُتَعَدِّيٌ with the Actor فَاعِلٌ always in Nominative status مَرْفُوْعٌ. For example, قَامَ زَيدٌ meaning “Zaid stood” is intransitive
and does not require an Object مَفْعُوْلٌ. And ضَرَبَ عَمْرٌو meaning “Amr hit” is transitive and requires an Object مَفْعُوْلٌ as here the sentence raises the question of who he hit. And the Accusative نَصْبٌ is given to the following six Objective Nouns:

 

1.    Absolute Object or Cognate Accusative اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ الْمُطْلَقُfor emphasis/type/quantity – As in قَامَ زَيْدٌ قَيَامًا meaning Zaid stood up as one should stand up or ضَرَبَ زَيدٌ ضَربًا meaning “Zaid hit as one should hit (appropriately/severely/the way one should be hit)”.

 

2.    Adverb of time and place اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ فِيْهِ – As in

صُمْتُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ meaning “I fasted Friday” or جَلَسْتُ فَوْقَكَ meaning “I sat above you (your position)”.

 

3.    Comitative Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ مَعَهٗ for describing what happens with the action – As in

جَاءَ الْبَرْدُ وَالْجُبَّاتِ meaning “cold came with warm coats” (مَعَ الْجُبَّاتِ) and implies that “warm coats came out”. Letter (وَ) is used for the meaning of “with” (مَعَ).

 

4.    Adverb of Purpose [2]اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ لَهٗ for the reason of action – As in قُمْتُ إِكْرَامًا لِزَيْدٍmeaning “I stood up with respect for Zaid” or ضَرَبْتُهُ تَأْدِيْبًا meaning “I beat him to teach respect”.

 

5.    State/Condition اَلْحَالُ for describing the condition of Object مَفْعُوْلٌand actor فَاعِلٌin which action happened as in جَاءَ زَيْدٌ رَاكِبًا meaning “Zaid came while he was riding”.

 

6.    Clarification اَلتَّمْيِيْزُ for removing any doubt about the action of a Verb towards its actor فَاعِلٌ which is vague as in طَابَ زَيْدٌ نَفْسًا meaning “Zaid felt blessed inside”. طَابَ means “blessed” and نَفْسًا is the clarification اَلتَّمْيِيْزُ to طَابَ زَيْدٌ. This action اَلتَّمْيِيْزُ is common in all transitive and intransitive Verbs.

 

Transitive Verb الْمُتَعَدِّيُ اَلْفِعْلُ: It adds an object مَفعُوْلٌ by its action which is given Accusative نَصْبٌ status. For example, عَمْرًوا زَيْدٌ ضَرَبَ meaning “Zaid hit Amr”.

 

Intransitive Verb اللَّازِمُ اَلْفِعْلُ: This Verb does not demand an Object مَفْعُوْلٌ.

 

 

Section 6.4 – Types of Objects فصْلٌ ٦. ٤ – أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ

 

Actor فَاعِلٌ is a Noun which occurs after a Verb and is associated with the meaning of the Act/Verb (فِعْلٌ) and it stands as a subject (مُسْنَدٌ إِلَيْهِ) for the Verb (فِعْلٌ). For example, “زَيْدٌ” in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ.

 

Absolute Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ الْمُطْلَقُ: This uses a Verbal Source مَصْدَرٌ for the Verb which was used earlier in the sentence and with the same meaning. For example, “ضَرْبًا” in ضَرَبْتُ ضَرْبًا meaning “I hit him as he should be hit” or “I hit him a lot”. Or “قَيَامًا” in قُمْتُ قَيَامًا meaning “I stood as one should stand or properly”.

 

Adverb of Time or Placeاَلْمَفْعُوْلُ فِيْهِ: This is a Noun for a situation, place, or time which the action associated with a Verb occurs. It is sometimes called ظَرْفٌ and has two kinds:

1) ظَرْفُ زَمَانٍ or adverb of time: As in “يَوْمَ” in

صُمْتُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ meaning “I fasted on Friday”.

2) ظَرْفُ مَكَانٍ or adverb of place: As in “عِنْدَ” in

جَلَسْتُ عِنْدَكَ meaning “I sat near you/next to you”.

 

Comitative Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ مَعَهٗ: This Noun happens after the letter (و) where it is for the meaning of “مَعَ” (with) and it joins the actor فَاعِلٌin its action. For example, “وَالْجُبَّاتِ” in the sentence [3]وَالْجُبَّاتِ الْبَرْدُ جَاءَ meaning “cold came with warm coats”.

 

Adverb of Purpose اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ لهٗ: This is the reason why the action of the Verb is happening. For example, “إِكْرَامًا” in قُمْتُ إكْرَامًا لِزَيْدٍ meaning “I stood up to show respect for Zaid”.

 

State/Condition اَلْحَالُ: This is a Noun that denotes the position/condition/status of the actor فَاعِلٌ as in “رَاكِبًا” in جَاءَ زَيْدٌ رَاكِبًا meaning “Zaid came while he was riding”. Zaid here is called ذُوْالْحَالِ. Or position/condition/status of the Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖ defined below as in “مَشْدُوْدًا” in ضَرَبْتُ زَيْدًا مَشْدُوْدًا meaning “I hit Zaid while he was tied up”. Or position/condition/status of both actor فَاعِلٌand Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ with it as in “رَاكِبَيْنِ” in لَقِيْتُ زَيْدًا رَاكِبَيْنِmeaning “I met Zaid while both of us were riding”.

 

Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُand actor فَاعِلٌcan be ذُوْالْحَالِ and these two are mostly Definite Nouns. When ذُوْالْحَالِ is an Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ, then it is required to be before الْحَالُ. For example,  جَاءَنِيْ الرَّجُلُ رَاكِبًا meaning “a man came to me riding” or “a man came to me while he was riding”. This اَلْحَالُmay also be a sentence as you may say رَاكِبٌ هُوَ وَ الْأَمِيْرَ رَأَيْتُ meaning “I met Ameer while he was riding”.

 

Clarification اَلتَّمْيِيْزُ: This is a Noun which removes doubt/lack of clarity [4]اَلْإِبْهَامُ as in counting or numbers. For example, دِرْهَمًا عَشَرَ أَحَدَ meaning “eleven dirhams”. Eleven by itself does not define what is being counted. Or for weights, as in عِنْدِي رِطْلٌ زَيْتًاmeaning “I have a gallon of oil”. Or for اَلْكَيْلَ (any measure/kilo) as in

عِنْدِي قَفِيْزَانِ بُرًا, meaning “there are two barrels of wheat with me” or “I have two barrels of wheat”. Or in measurements, as in مَا فِي السَّمَاءِ قَدْرٌ رَاحَةٍ سَحَابًاmeaning “there is not even a palm-sized cloud in the sky”.

 

The object of a Verb اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖ: This is a Noun on which act اَلْفِعْلُof the actor فَاعِلٌ occurs. For example, ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْرًا meaning “Zaid hit Amr”.

 

These Accusatives مَنْصُوْبَاتٌ which have been mentioned earlier come after the completion of the sentence. The sentence is built with the act اَلْفِعْلُand the actor فَاعِلٌ. For this reason, these Accusatives are called excess Accusatives اَلْمَنْصُوْبُ فُضْلَةٌ.



[1] Active Verbs have no substitutes for actor فَاعِلٌ

[2] Sometimes this is also called اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ لِأَجْلِهِ

[3] Kasrah comes in the word اَلْجُبَّاتِ and it is Sound Feminine Plural and it is Accusative by Kasrah or you may say جَاءَ الْبَرْدُ وَالْجُبَّةَ, (وَ) with meaning of (مَعَ) “with” and this makes it easier to understand for a beginner.

[4] اَلْإِبْهَامُ causes the doubt in understanding for the listener because of lack of clarity

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