Nahw Meer English: 6.1 - Explixit Active Elements عَوَامِلُ اللَّفْظِيَّةِ

 


Active Elements اَلْعَوَامِلُfor flexibility are of two kinds: Explicit لَفْظَيَّةٌ and Implied مَعْنَوِيَّةٌ.

 

The Explicit active elements are of three kinds: Particles حَرُوْفٌ, Verbs أَفْعَالٌ, and Nouns أَسمَاءٌ. We will detail these in the next three sections in-sha-Allah so remember them well.

 

Section 6.1 – Active Particles in Noun  فَصْلٌ ٦. ١ - حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ فِي الْاِسْمِ

 

These are of five types:

 

First Type of Active Particles: These are 17 Genitive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْجَرِّ:

 

1) (ب)اَلْبَاءُ2) مِنْ 3) اِلٰى 4) حَتّٰى 5) فِي 6) (ل) اَللَّامُ 7) رُبَّ

8) (وَ)وَاوُ الْقَسْمِ 9) (تَ) تَاءُ الْقَسْمِ 10) عَنْ 11) عَلٰى

12) (كَ)  كَافُ التَّشْبِيْهِ13) مُذْ 14) مُنْذُ 15) حَاشَا 16) خَلَا 17) عَدَا

 

Table 11 – Active Particles Meanings and Examples

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

اَلْبَاءُ

(ب)

مِنْ

اِلٰى

حَتّٰى

فِي

اَللَّامُ

(ل)

رُبَّ

وَاوُ الْقَسَمِ

تَاءُ الْقَسَمِ

Meaning

With

From

To, Towards

Until

In

For

Some, a bit

Letter وَ)) for the oath

Letterتَ)) for the oath

Examples

بِالْقَلَمِ

مِنْ مَكَّةَ

اِلٰى الْمَسْجِدِ

حَتّٰي حِيْنٍ

فِي الْمَسْجِدِ

لِزَيْدٍ

رُبَّ ضَارَّةٍ نَافِعَةَ

وَاللهِ

تَاللهِ

Example Meaning

With pen

From Mecca

Towards masjid

Until a fixed time

In masjid

For Zaid

A bit harmful or useful

By Allah

By Allah

 

 

 

 

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

عَنْ

عَلٰى

كَافُ التَّشْبِيهِ

(كَ)

مُذْ

مُنْذُ

حَاشَا

خَلَا

عَدَا

Meaning

From

On, at

Like

From

Ago, with, etc.

Forbid, preserve

Had passed, meet in private, be or become empty

Except

Examples

عنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ

عَلٰى اَلْعَرْشِ

كَالْقَمَرِ

مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذْ يَوْمِ اَلُجُمُعَةِ

مَا رَأَيْتُ مُنْذُ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ

حَاشَا لِلّٰهِ

--

--

Example Meaning

From Abi Hurairah

On the sky

Like moon

I did not see him since Friday

 

I did not see him since Friday

 

Allah forbid or, Allah preserve us

--

--

 

These Particles, when used with a Noun, make it Genitive جَرٌّ by changing the harakah to kasrah of the last letter as in اَلْمَالُ لِزَيْدٍ.

Second Type of Active Particle: These are 6 Particles Resembling a Verb حُرُوْفُ الْمُشَبَّهَةِ بِالْفِعْلِ:

 

1.    إِنَّ meaning “without a doubt” used at the beginning of a Nominative sentence

2.    أَنَّ meaning “without a doubt” used in the middle of a sentence

3.    كَأنَّ meaning “like/similar”

4.    لٰكِنَّ meaning “but”

5.    لَيْتَ meaning “(I) wish/would that”

6.    لَعَلَّ meaning “perhaps”

These Particles are entered on Subject and Predicate which are given the names of Noun of the Subject اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ and similarly the Predicate is continued to be called its Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ. And Accusative نَصْبٌ status is given to its Noun and Nominative رَفْعٌ status is given to its Predicate as in إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائمٌ.

 

إِنَّ and أَنَّare both used for emphasis and affirmation التَّحْقِيقُ وَ التَّاكِيْدُ, كَأَنَّ for pointing to Similarity, لٰكِنَّ for Coordinating Conjunction/Connective, لَيْتَfor Desire, and لَعَلَّfor Possibility.

 

Third Type of Active Particles: مَا and لَا are both similar to [1]لَيْسَ and act similar to it, as you can say مَا زَيْدٌ قَائماً meaning “Zaid is not standing” and لَا عَمْرٌو حَاضِرًا “meaning Amr is not present” in which زَيْدٌ andعَمْرٌو  are Nouns of مَا and لَا, and قَائمًا and حَاضِرًا are their Predicates.

 

Fourth Type of Active Particles: لَا which is used for elimination of all things of a kind نَفْيُ الْجِنْسِ and its Noun is Accusative نَصْبٌ and its Predicate is Nominative رَفْعٌ. Its Noun is usually the Possessed مُضَافٌ part of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ اَلْمُرَكَّبُ  time as in لَا غُلَامَ رَجُلٍ مَوْجُوْدٌ فِي الدَّارِmeaning “there is no servant of a man present in the house”. غُلَامَ here is Accusative نَصْبٌ.

 

When its Noun is a single Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ or not a Possessed مُضَافٌ part of the Possessive Compound  الْإِضَافِيُّ   اَلْمُرَكَّبُ  then it is made Inflexible with Fathah as in

لَا رَجُلَ فِي الدَّارِ meaning “there is no man in the house”, رَجُلَ here is now Inflexible or مَبْنِيٌّby Fathah.

 

And if there is another Definite Noun after لَا, then it is required that لَا is repeated with second Definite Noun and then (لَا) is not acting as نَفْيُ الْجِنْسِmeaning لَا will not act to make them مَبْنِيٌّby Fathah. The two Definite Nouns will be Nominative رَفْعٌ because these two are Subjects as in لَا زَيْدٌ عِنْدِي وَ لَا عَمْرٌو meaning “Zaid is not with me and neither is Amr”. Note both Zaid and Amr are now Nominative رَفْعٌ Nouns.

 

If the second Noun after first is single Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ andis not a Possessed مُضَافٌ part of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ   اَلْمُرَكَّبُ   and لَا is repeated with a second Inflexible Noun, then their flexibility إِعْرَابٌ can be any of five ways[2]:

 

1) لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ

2) لَا حَوْلٌ وَ لَا قُوَّةٌ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ

3) لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةٌ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ

4) لَا حَوْلٌ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ

5) لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةً إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ

 

Fifth Type of Active Particles: These are 5 Vocative Particles حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ: يا, أَيَا, هَيَا, أَي, أَ. The last one is called اَلْهمْزَةُالْمَفْتُوْحَةُ These particles are given Accusative نَصْبٌ status for the addressee مُنَادٰى when it is a Possessed مُضَافٌ part of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ اَلْمُرَكَّبُ as in يَا عَبْدَ اللهِ. This is true even if it resembles a Possessed مُضَافٌ part of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ   اَلْمُرَكَّبُ   as in يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلًا meaning “O mountain climber”, or is an Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ which is undetermined نَكِرَةُ غَيْرَ مُعَيَّنَةٍ as in a blind person saying the following:

 يَارَجُلً خُذْ بِيَدِيْ meaning “O man, hold me by my hand”.

 

When the addressee is singular, it is given the status of Nominative رَفْعٌ as in زَيْدُ يَا, زيْدَانِ يَا, مُسْلِمُوْنَ يَا, مُوْسٰى يَا, and قَاضِيْ يَا.

 

أَي is for addressees who are near and أَيَا, هَيَا are for addressees who are far and يَا is usually for addressees both near and far.



[1] لَيْسَ soon will be introduced in details for Active Verbs اَفْعَالُ الْعَامِلَةُ in-sha-Allah.

[2] If speech in which لَاis repeated by means of conjunctive particle (و) and there are two Indefinite Nouns (نَكِرَةٌ) without a word between each (لَا) and its Noun, as in لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إَلَّا بِاللّٰهِ meaning “there is no escape (حَوْلَ) from sin except protection from Allah (SWT), and “there is no achieving submission except by protection from Allah (SWT) and His guidance”, then Flexibility in examples 1 through 5 is based on following five reasons:

1.       Both Nouns have Fathah: It is  لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ.لَا  in both cases are لَا النَّافِيَةُ لِلْجِنْسِ and Nouns are conjunctive with (وَ) from a single Noun to a single Noun and their Predicate is hidden مَحْذُوْفٌ. Its non-hidden لَاحَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ مَوْجُوْدَانِ إِلَّا بِا للهِ .

2.       Both Nouns are in Nominative status: That is لَا حَوْلٌ وَ لَا قُوَّةٌ إِلَّا بِاللّٰهِ, both Nouns are Nominative. And that “حَوْلٌ” is subject (اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ) and قُوَّةٌ is made conjunctive مَعْطُوْفٌ  to it with (و) and “بِاللّٰهِ” is its Predicate (اَلْخَبَرُ) and this Predicate for the first sentence is hidden مَحْذُوْفٌ and they are made a conjunctive مَعْطُوْفٌ sentence to a sentence because the Predicate does not need to be repeated for the second sentence. Or it is conjunctive (مَعْطُوْفٌ) single word to a single word and their Predicate (مُوْجُوْدَانِ) is hidden/assumed and both Nouns are present and Particles لَاdo not act on either of them and they become لَغْوٌ or ineffective for لِلْجِنْسِ.

3.       First Noun is with Fathah and second is Nominative: That is لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةٌ إِلًّا بِاللّٰهِ. In these two, first لَا is لَا النَّافِيَةُلِلْجِنْسِ and second one is extraneous and قُوَّةٌ is positional conjunctive مَعْطُوفٌfor حَوْلَ. قُوَّةٌ is Nominative by its position because of the beginning (اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ) and is conjunctive مَعْطُوْفٌ single word to single word and their Predicate is single and hidden. Or it is conjunctive مَعْطُوْفٌsentence to sentence and their Predicate is hidden.

4.       First Noun is Nominative and second has Fathah: That is لَا حَوْلٌ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلًّا بِاللّٰهِ. First لَا means is used as لَيْسَ and this is weak because of the rare usage of لَا to mean لَيْسَ.

5.       First Noun has Fathah and second is Accusative: That is لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةً إَلًّا بِاللّٰهِ. The first لَا is لَا النَّافِيَةُلِلْجِنْسِ and second one is extra for emphasis of the negative. The second word قُوَّةً is conjunctive مَعْطُوْفٌ over first word حَوْلَ  and it is Accusative.


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