Nahw Meer English: 5.0 - The flexibility of an Imperfect Tense إِعْرَابُ الْمُضَارِعِ


 

5.0 - The flexibility of an Imperfect Tense

  إِعْرَابُ الْمُضَارِعِ


A Verb can have only three statuses:

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ, Accusative نَصْبٌ, and Jussiveجَزَمٌ . The Jussive particle when explicit has a jazm also called a sukoon (ْ) on the last letter.

 

And Imperfect Present/Future Tense is divided into four types based on flexibility:

 

1)Sound Empty Verb الصَّحِيْحِ الْمُجَرَّدِ فِعْلُ: It is for Nominative رَفْعٌ empty of Seen/VisiblePronouns

 الْبَارِزَةِضَمَائرُ for Dual and Masculine Plural Absent غَائِبٌ, Masculine Plural Present حَاضِرٌ, and Speaker مُتَكَلِّمٌ Pronoun. It is given Nominative رَفْعٌ Status by Dammah, Accusative نَصْبٌ by Fathah, and Jussiveجَزَمٌ with Sukoon (ْ) as in يَضْرِبُ هُوَ, يَضْرِبَ لَنْ and لَمْ يَضْرِبْ meaning, respectively, from left “he hits/will hit”, “he definitely will not hit” and “he did not hit”.

 

2)Single Weak Verb with the letter (و) –

الْوَاوِيْ الْمُفْرَدِالْمُعْتَلِّ فِعْلُ: As in يَغْزُوْ means “he is going to war/will go to war” and Single Weak Verb with (ي) - الْيَائِييْ الْمُعْتَلِّ الْمُفْرَدِ فِعْلُ as in يَرْمِيْ meaning “he shoots arrows/throws” or “will shoot arrows/will throw”. These two are given Nominative رَفْعٌ status by Implicit Dammah, Accusative نَصْبٌ status by explicit Fathah, and Jussive جَزَمٌ status by removing (ل) position letter[1]that is (و) or (ي) as in هُوَ يَغْزُو and هُوَ يَرْمِيَ meaning “he is going to/will go to war” and “he is going to shoot arrows/will shoot arrows”, لَنْ يَغْزُوَ and لَنْ يَرْمِيَ meaning “he is not going to/will not go to war” and “he is not going to/will not shoot arrows”, and لَمْ يَغْزُand لَمْ يَرْمِ meaning “he did not shoot arrows” and “he did not go to war”.

 

3)Single Weak Verb with the letter (ا) اَلْفِعْلُ الْمُفْرَدُ الْمُعْتَلُّ الْأَلِفِيْ [2]: As inيَرْضٰى . This is given Nominative رَفْعٌ status by Implicit Dammah ضَمَّةُ الْمُقَدَّرَةِ, Accusative نَصْبٌ by Implicit Fathah الْمُقَدَّرَةُ اَلْفَتْحَةُ and Jussive جَزَمٌ by eliminating (ل) position letter as in يَرْضٰى هُوَ meaning “he is agreeing/will agree”, يَرْضٰى لَنْ meaning “he is not agreeing/will not agree”, and لَمْ يَرْضُ meaning “he did not agree”.

 

4)Sound اَلصَّحِيْحُ or Weak اَلْمُعْتَلُّ with Pronouns and previously mentioned two (ن) [3]: These are made Nominative رَفْعٌ by keeping the (ن) as shown below in the table:

 

Table 8– Sound and Weak Verbs in Nominative رَفْعٌ

Masculine/ Feminine Dual Absent

هُمَا يَضْرِبَانِ

Those two are hitting/ will hit

هُمَا يَغْزُوَانِ

Those two are going to/will go to war

هُمَا يَرْمِيَانِ

Those two are shooting/ will shoot arrows

هُمَا يَرْضَيَانِ

Those two are agreeing/ will agree

Masculine Plural Absent

هُمْ يَضْرِبُوْنَ

they are hitting/ will hit

هُمْ يَغْزُوْنَ

they are /will go to war

هُمْ يَرْمُوْنَ

they are/will shoot arrows

هُمْ يَرْضَوْنَ

they are agreeing/ will agree

Single Feminine Present

أَنْتِ تَضْرِبِيْنَ

You female are hitting/ will hit

أنْتِ تَغْزِيْنَ

You females are going to/will go to war

أنْتِ تَرْمِيْنَ

you female shooting/ will shoot arrows

أنْتِ تَرْضَيْنَ

you female agreeing/ will agree

 

And Accusative نَصْبٌ and Jussive جَزَمٌ status are given by eliminating letter (ن) and as shown in Tables 9 and 10:

 

Table 9 - Sound and Weak Verbs in Accusative نَصْبٌ

Masculine Dual Accusative Absent

لَنْ يَضْرِبَا

Those two are hitting/will hit

لَنْ يَغْزُوَا

Those two are going to/will go to war

لَنْ يَرْمِيَا

Those two are shooting/will shoot arrows

لَنْ يَرْضَيَا

Those two are agreeing/will agree

Masculine Plural Accusative Absent

لَنْ يَضْرِبُوْا

You, males, are hitting/will hit

لَنْ يَغْزُوْا

you males are going to/ will go to war

لَنْ يَرْمُوْا

You, males, are shooting/will shoot arrows

لَنْ يَرْضَوْا

You, males, are agreeing/will agree

Masculine Dual Jussive جَزَمٌ Absent

لَمْ يَضْرِبَا

Those two males did not hit

لَمْ يَغْزُوَا

Those two males did not hit

لَمْ يَرْمِيَا

Those two males did not hit

لَمْ يَرْضَيَا

Those two males did not agree

 

Table 10- Sound and Weak Verbs in Jussive جَزَمٌ

Masculine Dual Jussive جَزَمٌ Absent

لَمْ يَضْرِبَا

Those two males did not hit

لَمْ يَغْزُوَا

Those two males did not hit

لَمْ يَرْمِيَا

Those two males did not hit

لَمْ يَرْضَيَا

Those two males did not agree

Masculine Plural Jussive جَزَمٌ Absent

لَمْ يَضْرِبُوْا

They did not hit

لَمْ يَغْزُوْا

They did not go to war

لَمْ يَرْمُوْا

They did not shoot arrows

لَمْ يَرْضَوْا

They did not agree

Single Feminine Jussive جَزَمٌ Present

لَمْ تَضْرِبِىيْ

She did not hit

لَمْ تَغْزِيْ

She did not go to war

لَمْ تَرْمِيْ

She did not shoot arrows

لَمْ تَرْضَيْ

She did not agree

 

۞۞۞


[1] This is eliminating alphabet (و) in (وَاوِي) and eliminating alphabet (ي) in يَائِيْ. Position alphabets always refer to and are based on 3 alphabet root word فعل. First alphabet of any three-alphabet word is called as(ف) location, second as(ع) location and third as(ل) location.

[2] Weak Alifi for Nahvis is one which happens at the end in which (و) or (ي) have been changed to (ا) and this is especially true in Imperfect Tense (مُضَارِعٌ). And for Sarfis أَهْلُ الصَّرْفِ  there is no الْمُعْتَلُّ الْأَلِفِيْ with (ا) because it is used to replace alphabet (و) or alphabet (ي).

[3] I mean (ن) that is explicit (بَارِزٌ) for dual in plural masculine and single present feminine.


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