Nahw Meer English: 2.1/2.2 - Flexible/Non-Flexible Nouns and Particles/Nouns/Verbs

 

 

Section 2.1 – Flexible/Non-Flexible Nouns 
فَصْلٌ ٢.١ - اِسْمُ الْمُعْرَبِ وَالْمَبْنِيِّ

 

All words of Arabic are of two kinds: Flexible مُعْرَبٌand Non-Flexible مَبْنِيٌّ:

 

مُعْرَبٌ: In this word harakah of the last alphabet changes by different active elements as in زَيْدٌ below. Note the harakah on the last alphabet in the following sentences:

 

1)   جَاءنِيْ زَيْدٌ meaning “Zaid came to me”. (ٌ) here is for Nominative status رَفْعٌ.

2)   رَأَيْتُ زَيْدًا meaning “I saw Zaid”. (ً) here is for Accusative status نَصْبٌ.

3)   مَرَرْتُ بِزِيدٍmeaning “I passed by Zaid”. (ٍ) here is for Genitive status جَرٌّ.

 

In the first sentence, جَاءَ is the active element with Flexible Noun زَيْدٌ, Tanween (ٌ)[1] is the flexibility إِعْرَابٌ, and letter (د) is called

 مَحَلُّ الْإِعْرَابِ[2]for the location of إِعْرَابٌ.

 

مَبْنِيٌّ:  In this word, no changes happen in the harakah of the last alphabet by different active elements as in هٰؤُلَاءِ. This word is used for all three states of اَلرَّفْعُ وَالنَّصْبُ وَالْجَرُّ or Nominative/Accusative/Genitive states in a single form.

 

Section 2.2 – Particles, Nouns, and Verbs فَصْلٌ ٢. ٢ – حَرْفٌ، اِسْمٌ وَفِعْلٌ

 

Particles:

All Particles are Inflexible مَبْنِيٌّ.

 

Verbs:

Among all Verbs أَفْعَالٌ, the following are Inflexible مَبْنِيٌّ:

1)Past tense اَلْمَاضِيُ

2)Definite Imperative present أَمْرُالْحَاضِرِالْمَعْرُوْفِ

3)Present/future tenses اَلْمُضَارِعُ in which the letter (ن) of female plural is attached as in يَضْرِبْنَand تَضْرِبْنَ meaning “those (females) hit/will hit” and “you (females) hit/will hit”.

4)Where the letter (ن) of emphasis called (التَّوْكِيْدِ نُوْنُ) which could be strong اَلثَّقِيْلَةُand light اَلْخَفِيْفَةُ, is part of the Verb فِعْلٌ. As in, لَيَضْرِبَنَّ meaning “they will definitely hit”.

 

Nouns:

 

Nouns اِسْمٌ are of two kinds:

 

1)   A Declinable Noun اَلْاِسْمُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ which can accept a vowel on the end letter إعْرَابٌ under certain conditions.

 

2)   A Non-Declinable Noun اَلْاِسْمُ الْغيرُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ which does not accept a vowel on the end letter under any condition and is always non-flexible مَبْنِيٌّ.

 

A Declinable Noun اَلْاِسْمُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ is flexible اَلْمُعْرَبُ with the condition that it happens to be in a construction اَلتَّرْكِيْبُ such as in a Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّاَلْمُرَكَّبُ.

 

An Imperfect Tense Verb اَلْفِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعُ is flexible اَلْمُعْرَبُ with the condition that it is without an alphabet (ن) used for the feminine plural جَمْعُ الْمُؤَنَّثِ or emphasis التَّوْكِيْدُ.

 

Flexible words اَلْمُعْرَبُ are not found in the Arabic language except for the following two: Declinable Nouns اَلْاِسْمُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ and اَلْفِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعُ with conditions mentioned above. The remaining are non-flexible مَبْنِيٌّ.

 

And as for Non-Declinable Nouns اَلْاِسْمُ الْغَيرُ الْمُتَمَكِّنُ, they are similar to مَبْنَيُّ الْأَصْلِ “Original Non-Flexible”. And مَبْنَيٌّ الْأَصْلِare three things:

 

1)Past tense اَلْمَاضِيْ

2)Definite Imperative Imperfect Tense Verb أَمْرُالْحَاضِرِالْمَعْرُوْفِ

3)All Particles اَلْحُرُوْفُ

 

These will be described later in detail.

 



[1] Flexibility اَلْإِعْرَابُis of two kinds: One of them is اَلْإِعْرَابُ by harakah اَلحَركَةُ: Dammah اَلضَّمَّةُ, Fathah اَلْفَتْحَةُ, Kasrah اَلْكَسْرَةُ. Second of them is اَلْإعْرَابُ by alphabet اَلْحَرْفُ and these are three: الْوَاوُ, اَلأَلِفُ, الْيَاءُ (alphabets و،ا،ي) as in جَاءَ مُسْلِمُوْنَmeaning “Muslims came” which is Nominative by alphabet (و), and جَاءَ مُسْلِمَانِ meaning “two Muslims came” which is Accusative by alphabet (ا) and مَرَرْتُ بِمُسْلِمَيْنِ meaning “I passed by two Muslims” which is Genitive (جَرٌّ) by alphabet (ي).

[2] You should guess for these: زَيْدًا رَأَيَتُ and مَرَرْتُ بِزِيْدٍ.


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