7.4/7.5/7.6 - Forming Verbal Sentence/Object of Verb/Pronoun as Object

 


Section 7.4 - Forming Verbal Sentence
جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ (jum-la-tul fei-li-ya-tu)

 

We learned that the base inflection itself can be a sentence by itself since it has a pronoun hidden in it which serves as the Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) which sometimes we will call as the subject.

 

An important rule is that Actor/Subject  (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is always in a Nominative state (رَفْعٌ raf-un).

 

When Actor/Subject (faa-ilun فَاعِلٌ) is explicit/mentioned, then following rules apply:

 


1. The Actor/Subject is a common/indefinite Noun (نَكِرَةٌ naki-ra-tun) then, Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) is always single irrespective of whether the Actor/Subject is single/dual or plural with proper gender.

 

Examples:

 

Any man heard                 سَمِعَ رَجُلٌ (sami-a ra-ju-lun)

Any two men heard          سَمِعَ رَجُلَانِ (sami-a ra-ju-laa-ni)

Men heard                        سَمِعَ رِجَالٌ (sami-a-ri-jaa-lun)

Any woman heard              سَمِعَ إمْرَاءَةٌ (sami-at im-raa-a-tun)

Any two women heard       سَمِعَتْ إمْرَاءَتَانِ (sami-atimraa-taa-ni)

women heard                سَمِعَتْ نِسَاءٌ (sami-at nisaa)

 

2) The Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun) is broken plural (الْمُكَسَّرِجمْعُjam-ul mu-kas-sari) of non-intelligent beings (anything other than humans, angels, jinns) then Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) is always a single female. Examples:

 

Camels went – ذَهَبَتِ الْجِمَالُ (za-ha-ba-til jimaa-lu)

Female camels went – ذَهَبَتِ النُّقُ (za-ha-ba-tin nuqu)

 

3) If the Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun) is a broken plural (جمْعُ الْمُكَسَّرِ jam-ul mu-kas-sari) of intelligent beings, then verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) can again be male or female single. Examples:

 

Men entered: دَخَلَ الرِّجَالٌ (da-kha-lar rijaa-lun) or دَخَلَتِ الرِّجَالٌ (da-kha-la-tir ri-jaa-lun)

 

Women entered: دَخَلَتِ النِّسَاءُ dakha-la-tin nisaa-u or دَخَلَ النِّسَاءُ dakha-lanni-saa-u. The first one was دَخَلَتْ النِّسَاءُ and when a word with a jazm at the end is combined with hamzatul wasli of next word, the jazm (ْ) is replaced by a kasrah.

 

Bedouins said: قَالَ الأعْرَابُ (qaa-lala’raa-bu) or قَالَتِ الأعْرَابُ (qaa-latil aa’raa-bu).  The second version is used in al-Qur’an in surah al-Hujuraat.

 

4) If Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is a collective Noun, then again both single male or female (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) can be used. For example,

 

Nation conquered: غَلَبَ الْقَوْمُ (ghala-bal qaw-mu) or غَلَبَتِ الْقَوْمُ (ghala-batil qaw-mu)

 

1)     If Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is not a true feminine gender, then also the same rule applies; For example:

 

Sun came out (rose) طلَعَ الشَّمْسُ (tala-'ash-sham-su) or الشَّمْسُ طلَعَتِ (tala-atish-sham-su)

 

2)     And finally, if the Verb (فَاعِلٌ faa-'il-un) is a true female gender but there are words between Verb (فِعْلٌ fei'-lun) and Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-'il-un) then also the above rule applies. For example:

 

Fatimah read today: قَرَءَ الْيَوْمَ فَاطِمَةُ (qara-al yaw-ma fati-ma-tu) الْيَوْمَ فَاطِمَةُ قَرَءَتِ or (qara-tilyaw-ma fati-ma-tu)

 

Section 7.5 – Object of the Action (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf’ool) in a Verbal Sentence (الْفِعْلِيَةُجُملةُ

jum-la-tul fei-li-ya)

 

We have previously described that Verbs can be of two kinds:

 

1) Intransitive Verb فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ (feil-ul lazimi): This Verb does not require an object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ) and can be a complete sentence without

it. For Example:

Hamid went ذَهَبَ حامِدٌ (za-ha-ba hami-dun)

Amr came جَاءَ عَمرٌو(jaa-a am-run).

 

1)     Transitive Verb (فِعْلُ الْمُتَعْدِّىْ feil-ulmu-ta-'addi): This Verb always demands an object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf’oolu) or objects to complete the sentence. For example:

 

1) Hamid hit Mahmoud ضَرَبَ حَامِدٌ مَحْمُوْدًا

 

 (actor) (Verb) (object) (الْمَفْعُوْلُ) (فَاعِلٌ) (فِعْلُ)

 

 

2) Boy drank water شَرِبَ اَلْوَلَدُ الْمَاءَ

 

 (actor) (Verb) (object) (الْمَفْعُوْلُ) (فَاعِلٌ) (فِعْلُ)

 

Important Note: object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf’ool-u) is always in the accusative state (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). This is one of the ways to recognize which Nouns are objects of the action (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf’ool-u). If a Noun after a Verb is in a Nominative state 

(رَفْعٌraf-un) then it is likely to be an Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un).

 

Section 7.6 – pronoun as an Object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf-oo-lu)

 

We know that the object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf-oo-lu) is always in the accusative state (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). Therefore, if we need to use a pronoun as an object, we will be using the ones which are in this state. These are always attached pronouns we learned in Table 4. Table 39 below shows the chart for pronoun application using ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba(he hit) as the Verb.

 

Table 39 – pronoun as Object Example

 

ضَرَبَ

 

Da-ra-ba

He hit

ضَرَبَهُ

 

Da-ra-ba-hoo

He hit him

ضَرَبَهُمَا

 

Da-ra-ba-hu-ma

He hit them (both males)

ضَرَبَهُمْ

 

Da-ra-ba-hum

He hit them (all)

ضَرَبَهَا

 

Da-ra-ba-haa

He hit her

ضَرَبَهُمَا

 

Da-ra-ba-huma

He hit them (both females)

ضَرَبَهُنَّ

 

Da-ra-ba-hun-na

He hit them all (females)

ضَرَبَكَ

 

Da-ra-ba-ka

He hit you

ضَرَبَكُمَا

 

 

He hit you both (males)

ضَرَبَكُمْ

 

Da-ra-ba-kum

He hit you all (males)

ضَرَبَكِ

 

Da-ra-ba-ki

He hit you (female)

ضَرَبَكُمَا

 

Da-ra-ba-ku-maa

He hit both of you (females)

ضَرَبَكُنَّ

 

Da-ra-ba-kun-na

He hit all of you 

(females)

ضَرَبَنِي

 

Da-ra-ba-ni

He hit me 

(male/female)

ضَرَبَنَا

 

Da-ra-ba-naa

He hit us (male/female/

dual/plural)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note that for speaker, an alphabet (ن) is added before speaker (ي):

 

 (ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba) + (ي yaa) = (ضَرَبَنِيْ da-ra-ba-nee).

 

This is done because the alphabet (ي) usually requires a kasrah(ِ) before it. Therefore, a (ن) is added with a kasrah. This noon is called a Noon of Wiqayah.


 

Other Practices in Verbal Sentence (جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tulfei'-liya-tu):

 

1) In inflection number 4 (ضَرَبُوْا da-ra-bu) if a pronoun is an object (هُ hu) then alphabet alif (ا) is dropped:

 

 (ضَرَبُوْا da-ra-bu) + (هُ hu) = (ضَرَبُوْهُ da-bu-hu) meaning he hit me (male/female)

 

2) In inflection number 9 (ضَرَبْتُمْ dab-tum) if a pronoun is used as an object, then an alphabet (و) is added before the pronoun:

 

 (ضَرَبْتُمْ da-rab-tum) + (هُ hu) = (ضَرَبْتُمُوْهُ da-rab-tu-mu-hu) meaning you all hit him

 

1)     Normally, the order of a Verbal sentence is Verb, actor/subject, and the object. If the Actor/Subject is present (not hidden as discussed before) and the object is a ضَمِيْرٌ da-mee-run pronoun, then the object is attached to the Verb which changes the order to Verb, object, actor. For example, take the sentence Hamid hit him. In Arabic, this would be ضَرَبَهُ حَامِدٌ.

2)      

حَامِدٌ

+

هُ

+

ضَرَبَ

=

ضَرَبَهُ حَامِدٌ

Hami-dun

 

hu

 

Da-ra-ba

 

Da-ra-ba-hu

Hamidun

Subject/Actor

 

object

 

Verb

 

 

فَاعِلٌ

 

مَفعُوْلٌ

 

فِعْلٌ

 

 

 

3)     Besides the three components described above, there can be other components in a Verbal sentence. They are called Verb associate مُتَعَلَّقُ الْفِعْلِ mu-tal-laq-ul Feili. For example, Zaid sat on a chair. Here, Zaid is the actor, sat is the Verb and on a chair is Verb attachment. The Arabic sentence would be:

 

جَلَسَ زَيْدٌ عَلَى الْكُرْسِىِّ

                       

kur-see

Alal

Zaidun

ja-la-sa

الْكُرْسِىِّ

عَلَى

زَيْدٌ

جَلَسَ

the chair

On

Zaid

Sat

مُتَعَلَّقُ الْفِعْلُ

فَاعِلٌ

فِعْلٌ

Verb associate

Actor/Subject

Verb

 

 

 

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