7.7 to 7.14 - Compounds/Prepositions/Negative/Interrogative/(قَدْ qad)/Objects/Passive

 


Section 7.7 – Compounds in a Verbal Sentence (
جُملَةُالْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tul fei'-li-yatu)

 

Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun) and object الْمَفْعُوْلُ (al-maf’oolun) can also be compound words in a Verbal sentence. For example:

 

1) Mahmoud hit Hamid’s brother:

 ضَرَبَ مَحْمُوْدٌ أَخَا حَامِدٍ (dara-ba mah-mudun akh-aa haa-mi-din).  Here أَخَا حَامِدٍ is a possessive compound. The translation of brother is (أَخُوْ) in the nominative, (أَخَا) in Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and (أَخِيْ) in the genitive. Since the object is always in Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state, the Mu-daaf which was Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) in possessive compound (أَخُوْ) was changed to accusative (أَخَا).

 


2) Hamid’s brother became happy:

فَرِحَ أَخُو حَامِدٍ (fari-ha akhuHami-din).  Here أَخُو حَامِدٍ is the possessive compound and is the actor. Note that this is in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state.

 

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Section 7.8 – Prepositions in a Verbal Sentence جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tul fei-li-ya

 

When a preposition (حَرْفُ الجَرِّ har-ful jarri) is used in a Verb sentence, it changes the meaning and there are no fixed rules for this. You will learn the usage by reading and speaking the language. For example,

 

1) وَالصَلَوٰةِ بِالصَّبْرِ وَاسْتَعِيْنُوْا was-ta-yee-nu bis-sab-ri was-salati meaning “And seek help through patience and the prayer.”

2) ذَهَبَ اللهُ بِنُوْرِهِمْ dha-hab-Allahu bi-noo-ri-himmeaning “Allah took away their sight”. Note that (ذَهَبَ dh-ha-ba) means he went but when used with a preposition (بِ) in the object, it took the meaning of took away.

 

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Section 7.9 – Negative (نَفِيٌّنَافِيَةٌ/ nafee-yun/naa-fi-ya-tun) Verbal Sentence

 

To create a negative sentence in the past tense, the Particle (مَاmaa) is added. For example, مَا شَرِبَ maa shari-ba means he did not drink.

 

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Section 7.10 – Interrogative (اِسْتِفْهَامِيَةٌ is-tef-haa-mi-ya-tun) Verbal Sentence

 

All the interrogative Particles described before in Noun chapters can be utilized to change a Verb sentence into an interrogative sentence. For example:

1) لِمَ ضَرَبْتَ زَيْدًا (li-madarab-ta Zaidan) meaning why did you hit Zaid?

2) هَلْ تَشْرَبُ الْمَاءُ (hulltash-ra-bul maa-u) meaning are you drinking water?

 

 

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Section 7.11 – Use of (قَدْ qad) in a Verbal Sentence

 

When the Particle (قَدْ qad) is added in front of the Verb, there are two meanings that are possible:

1) It provides emphasis on the action. For example (قَدْ أَفْلَحَ qad-afla-ha) means he definitely found success. Also, often times alphabet ل called لَامُ التَّاكِيْدِ (laa-mut-taa-keedi) mean alphabet lam of emphasis is added to further stress the point as in (لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْاِنْسَانَ la-qadkha-laq-nal insaa-na) meaning “We certainly created man” with double emphasis on “certainly” which is not easily translated and sometimes al-Qur’an uses multiple emphasis words which are impossible to translate in other languages.

2) It may also describe the near past as in:

قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلَاةَ qad qaa-mati-salaa-ta which means prayer group has stood up.

 

Section 7.12 – Convert Verbal Sentence (جُملةُالْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tul fei-liya-tu) to a Nominal Sentence (جُملةُ الْاِسْمِيَةُ jum-la-tul is-mi-ya-tu)

 

Sometimes, a Verbal sentence needs to be converted into a nominal sentence (for example for the purpose of using emphasis by اِنَّ inna or ل lam of emphasis which are used in nominative sentences). Depending upon whether the فَاعِلٌ faa-'i-lun (actor) is explicit (mentioned) or implicit (hidden) there are two different ways:

 

1) If the Actor/Subject is mentioned مَذْكُوْرٌ maz-koor then, it is pulled in front as in خَرَجَ مُوْسٰى (kha-ra-ja Musa) can be خَرَجَ مُوْسٰى(Musa kh-ra-ja).

2) If the Actor/Subject is implicit, then the pronoun hidden in it is pulled ahead. Since all 14 inflections of a Verb have implicit pronouns, this rule applies to them as shown below in Table 40:

 

Table 40 – pronoun as Object Example

 

Verbal sentence

Nominative sentence

Meaning

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-'ala

هُوَ فَعَلَ

 

Hua fa-'ala

He did

فَعَلَا

 

Fa-'alaa

هُمَا فَعَلَا

 

Hu-ma fa-'alaa

They both males did

فَعَلُوْا

 

Fa-'a-loo

هُم فَعَلُوْا

 

Hum Fa-'a-loo

All males did

فَعَلَتْ

 

Fa-'alat

هِيَ فَعَلَتْ

 

Hi-ya Fa-'alat

she did

فَعَلَتَا

 

Fa-'ala-taa

هُمَا فَعَلَتَا

 

Hu-maa Fa-'ala-taa

They both females did

فَعلْنَ

 

Fa-'al-na

هُنَّ فَعلْنَ

 

Hun-na Fa-'al-na

They all females did

فَعَلْتَ

 

Fa-'al-ta

اَنْتَ فَعَلْتَ

 

An-ta Fa-'al-ta

You male did

فَعَلْتُمَا

 

Fa-'al-tu-maa

اَنْتُمَا فَعَلْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa Fa-'al-tu-maa

You both males did

فَعَلْتُمْ

 

Fa-'al-tum

اَنْتُم فَعَلْتُمْ

 

An-tum Fa-'al-tum

You all males did

فَعَلْتِ

 

Fa-'al-ti

اَنْتِ فَعَلْتِ

 

An-ti Fa-'al-ti

You female did

فَعَلْتُمَا

 

Fa-'al-tu-ma

اَنْتُمَا فَعَلْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa Fa-'al-tu-maa

You both females did

فَعَلْتُنَّ

 

Fa-'al-tun-na

اَنْتُنَّ فَعَلْتُنَّ

 

An-tun-na Fa-'al-tun-naa

You all females did

فَعَلْتُ

 

Fa-al-tu

اَنَا فَعَلْتُ

 

Anaa Fa-al-tu

I (male/female) did

فَعَلْنَا

 

fa-al-naa

نَحْنُ فَعَلْنَا

 

Nah-nu fa-al-naa

We (male/female/dual/ plural) did

 

Now since اِنَّ in-na is never used in front of a Verb, a Verbal sentence can be converted to a nominative sentence and اِنَّ in-na is added as in:

 

خَلَقَ اللهُ الاَرْضَ khalaq-Allah-ularda

 (Allah created the earth) - Verbal sentence


خَلَقَ الاَرْضَ اللهُAllahukha-la-qal ar-da

 (Allah created the earth) - nominal sentence


خَلَقُ الاَرْضَاللهَاِنَّ  in-nal-lahakha-la-qul arda

 (verily Allah created the earth) - nominal sentence with emphasis

 

Note that emphasis can be achieved in a Verbal sentence in other was by using other Particles such as قَدْ qadand ل (called lam of emphasis) which was covered earlier.

 


Section 7.13 – Types of Objects أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ

 

Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ Fai-lun is a Noun which occurs after a Verb and is associated with the meaning of the Act/Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) and it stands as a subject/actor (مُسْنَدٌ إِلَيْهِ mus-na-dun ilia-hi) for the Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun). For example, “زَيْدٌZai-dun in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ da-ra-ba Zai-dun meaning Zaid hit.

 

The object which is called an اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf’oolu is the the person or thing on which action is happening. This could be an action on, action for or action with the person or thing which we are calling here a object. There are several kinds of objects as described below.

 

Absolute Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ الْمُطْلَقُ al-maf’ool ul mut-la-qu: This uses a Verbal Source مَصْدَرٌ mas-da-run for the Verb which was used earlier in the sentence and with the same meaning. For example, “ضَرْبًاdar-ban in ضَرَبْتُ ضَرْبًا da-rab-tu dar-ban meaning “I hit him as he should be hit” or “I hit him a lot”. Or “قَيَامًاqayaa-man in قُمْتُ قَيَامًا qum-tuqayaa-man meaning “I stood as one should stand or properly”.

 

Adverb of Time or Place اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ فِيْهِ al-maf’ool-ul fee-hi: This is a Noun for a situation, place or time which the action associated with a Verb occurs. It is sometimes called ظَرْفٌ zar-fun and has two kinds:

1) ظَرْفُ زَمَانٍ zar-fu za-maa-nin or adverb of time: As in “يَوْمَyaw-ma in

صُمْتُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ sum-tu yaw-mal jum-a-ti meaning “I fasted on Friday”.

2) ظَرْفُ مَكَانٍ zar-fu makaa-nin or adverb of place: As in “عِنْدَin-da in

جَلَسْتُ عِنْدَكَ jalas-tu in-da-ka meaning “I sat near you/next to you”.

 

Comitative Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ مَعَهٗ al-maf'ool-u ma-'a-hoo: This Noun happens after letter (و) where it is for the meaning of “مَعَma-a (with) and it joins the Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-'i-lun in its action. For example, “وَالْجُبَّاتِwal-jub-baati in the sentence:

الْجُبَّاتِ وَ الْبَرْدُ جَاءَ jaa-'al bar-du wal-jub-baati meaning “cold came with warm coats”. Kasrah comes in the word اَلْجُبَّاتِ al-jub-baati and it is Sound Feminine Plural and it is Accusative nas-bun by Kasrah or you may say جَاءَ الْبَرْدُ وَالْجُبَّةَ jaa-al bar-du wal-jub-ba-ti, (وَ wa) with the meaning of مَعَ ma-a “with” and this makes it easier to understand for a beginner

 

Adverb of Purpose اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ لهٗ al-maf-ulu la-hu: This is the reason why the action of the Verb is happening. For example, “إِكْرَامًاik-raa-man in قُمْتُ إكْرَامًا لِزَيْدٍ qum-tuikraa-man li-Zai-din meaning “I stood up to show respect for Zaid”.

 

The object of a Verb اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖ al-maf-'ool-u be-he: This is a Noun on which act اَلْفِعْلُ al-fei'-lu of the Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-i-lun occurs. For example, ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْرًا da-ra-ba Zai-dun am-ran meaning “Zaid hit Amr”.

 


Section 7.14 – Passive Voice Past Tense Verb

(مَجْهُوْلٌ مَاضِيْ)

maa-di maj-hoo-lun

 

As described elsewhere before, an active Verb فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ (feil-ul laa-zimi) always requires an Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun to complete a sentence. These actors can be explicit Nouns or their pronouns, or implicit in the Verb itself. For example, in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ da-ra-ba Zaid-un meaning Zaid hit, زَيْدٌ Zai-dun is the Actor/Subject and is in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state. Or, in ضَرَبْتُ da-rab-tu meaning I hit, the pronounis hidden in تُ tu.

 

If only ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba is used, it means he hit and the pronoun “he” is hidden in the Verb ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba. Also, some intransitive Verbs فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ feil-ul laa-zi-mi require one or more objects مَفعُوْلٌ maf’oolun. The Actor/Subject is always in a Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state and the object are always in an Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state. To understand the meaning of an Arabic sentence, we need to look for the state of the Nouns.

 

In some sentences, the Actor/Subject is not mentioned for several reasons and this Verb is called a passive voice Verb مَجْهُوْلٌ مَاضِيْ

maa-di maj-hoo-lun. In the above example, we can say Hamid was hit. Here, there is no Actor/Subject mentioned and it is considered to be skipped or not mentioned مَحْذُوْفٌ (mah-zoo-fun).  We can say ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ حَامِدًا da-ra-ba Zai-dun-haa-mi-dan which means Zaid hit Hamid. Now, if we wanted to say Hamid was hit, we would say ضُرِبَ حَامِدٌ. Note that ضَرَبَ da-ra-baactive Verb (feilul ma-roofi) became ضُرِبَ du-ri-ba passive Verb (feilul maj-hooli) and حَامِدٌ haa-mi-dun is still in the nominative. Since Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-'un) state is given normally to the actor, and in a passive Verb object is also given Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-'un) state to the object, it is called nai-bul faa-ili (surrogate actor).

 

Note that passive Verb only comes from فِعْلُ الَّاَزِمِ intransitive Verb (feil-ul laa-zi-mi) since intransitive Verb requires an object (maf’ool). 

 

For a past tense active Verb (feil-ulmaa-di ma’roof). it is easy to make a passive Verb (feil-ulmaa-di majhool).  This is done by changing the Verb from its active form (ma’roof) to a passive (majhool) die as in from فَعَلَ to فُعِلَ. Some examples follow in Table 41:

 

Table 41 - Active (ma’roof) to Passive (majhool) Examples

 

Maa-di ma’roof

Maa-di ma’roof translation

Maa-di majhool

Maa-di majhool translation

شَرِبَ الْوَلَدُ الْمَاءَ

 

Sha-ri-bal wala-dul maa-aa

The child drank water

شُرِبَ الْمَاءُ

 

Shu-ri-bal maa-u

The water was drunk (consumed)

ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ حَامِدًا

 

Dara-ba Zai-dun hami-dan

Zaid hit Hamid

ضُرِبَ حَامِدٌ

 

Du-ri-ba hami-dun

Hamid was hit

 

أَكَلَ زَيَدٌ تُفَّاحَةً

 

aa-ka-la Zai-dun tuf-fa-ha-tan

Zaid ate the apple

 

أُكِلَ تُفَّاحَةٌ

 

U-ki-la tuf-faa-ha-tun

Apple was eaten

قَرَأتْ فَاطِمَةُ الدَّرْسَهَا

 

Qara-at Fatima-tud-dar-sihaa

Fatima read her lesson

قُرِأَ الدَّرْسُ

 

Qu-ri-ad dar-su

lesson was read

نَفَخَهُ فِيْ الصُّوْرِ

 

Naf-kha-hu fis-su-ri

He blew the horn

نُفِخَ فِيْ الصُّوْرِ

 

Nufi-qa fis-suri

The horn will be blown

ضَرَبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ

 

Da-rabal-lahu alai-him-udh dhil-lata

Allah put them under humiliation

ضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ

 

Du-ri-bat alai-him-udh dhil-latu

They have been put under humiliation

 

 

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