9.0/9.1/9.2 - Particles/Inactive Particles/Active Particles

 


Section 9.0 - Particles حُرُوْفٌ (hu-roof-un) are of two kinds:

 

-        First kind is the one which does not change the state of the word that comes after it and is called a non-active Particle.

-        Second kind is a Particle that causes the word/words after it to change its state to nominative (رَفْعٌ raf-un) accusative (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). Genitive (جَرٌّ jar-run) or jussive (جَزْمٌ jaz-mun) / or lightening of e’raab. These are called Active Particles.

 

Section 9.1 - Inactive Particles حُرُوْفٌ غَيْرُ الْعَامِلَةِ Hu-roof-ul ghai-rul 'aa-mi-la-ti

 

A. Particles of Conjunction/Connectivity حُرُوْفُ الْعَاطِفَةِ (Hu-roof-ul 'aa-ti-fati)

 

Table 62 – Additive Particles

Additive Particle

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

وَ

 

wa

And

إيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَ إِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ

Iyyaa-ka na’bu-du wa iyyaa-ka nas-ta-een

Only You we worship and only you we ask for help

 

فَ

 

Fa

And

 فَمَنيَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

 

Fa mai-yaa-mal mis-khaa-la dhar-ra-ra-tin khai-rai-yarah

So, whoever does an atoms weight of good will see it,

 

ثٌمَّ

 

Thum-ma

Again

ثُمَّ كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

 

Thum-ma kal-la sau-fa ta-lamoon

Then no! You are going to know

 

حَتّٰى

 

Hat-ta

Until

حَتَّىٰ زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِرَ

 

Hat-ta zur-tum-ul ma-qaa-bir

Until you visit the graveyards

 

أَوْ

 

auw

Or

عُذْرًا أَوْ نُذْرًا

 

Uz-ran aw nuz-ran

As justification or warning

 

إِمَّا

 

Im-ma

Either/ Or/ whether/If

إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَ إِمَّا كَفُوْرًا

 

Imma shaa-ki-ru wa imma ka-foo-ra

Either he is thankful or he is not thankful

 

أَمْ

 

um

Or

أَمْ لَمْ تُنْذِرُهُمْ

 

Am-lam tun-zi-ru-hum

Or you do not warn them

 

لَا

 

laa

No

لَا أَعْبُدُ

 

Laa aa’bu-du

I do not worship

 

بَلْ

 

bal

But/still

بَلْ أنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ ۢمُّسْرِفُوْنَ 

Bal antum khau-mum mus-ri-foon

you are a transgressing people

 

لٰكِنَّ

 

La-kin-na

Nevertheless/ but

وَلَٰكِنْ لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ

 

Wa la-kil-la yash-uroon

but they perceive [it] not.

 

 

B.     Particles of Caution حُرُوْفُ التَّنْبِيْهِ (hu-roof-ut tam-beehi)

Particle of Caution

Particle Meaning

Usage

Usage meaning

اَلَا

 

alaa

Verily/ indeed

أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ

Alaa in-na-hum hum-ul muf-si-doon

Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters

أَمَّا

 

Am-ma

Nevertheless/on the other hand/as for

وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

Wa am-ma man khaf-fat mawa-zee-nu-hu

But as for one whose scales are light

هَا

 

haa

This, Here, thing close at hand or indicated or already named or understood

هَا اَنْتُمْ

Ha antum

Here you are

 

C. Particles of Answer حُرُوْفُ الْاِيْجَابِ (huroof-ul ee-jaabi)

Particles of Answer

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

نَعَمْ

 

Na-am

Yes, indeed

  نَعَمْلِلْكُلِّ

Na-am lil-kul-li

Yes, to all

بَلٰى

 

Ba-laa

Certainly, indeed, surely, truly, verily, yes

بَلٰى وَهْوَالْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيْمٌ

Ba-laa wa hual-khal-laaq-qul aleem

Yes indeed! And He (is) the Supreme Creator, the All Knower

أَجَلَ

 

Aja-la

A limited span of time, a period of time, limited time

فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ اللهِ لَأَتٍ

Fa in-na aja-lal-lahi la aa-tin

Then indeed (the) term (of) Allah (is) surely ending

إِيْ

 

ee

Yes

قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ

Qul ee wa rabbi in-na-hu la-haq-qun

Say, "Yes, by my Lord. Indeed, it is truth

إِنَّ

 

In-na

Indeed

إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ

In-nal in-saa-na la-fi qus-ri

Indeed, mankind is in loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.     Particles of Explanation حُرُوْفُ التَّفْسِيْرِ (huroof-ut taf-seeri)

Particles of Promotion

Particle meaning

usage

pronunciation

Usage meaning

أَيْ

 

aye

Any, that is to say, in other words

بِمُوْجِبٍ أَي حُقُوْقً مِلْكِيَةً

Bi-mu-ji-bi aye hu-qoo-qun mil-ki-ya

Under any proprietary rights

أَنْ

 

un

Because

أَن جَاءَهُ الْأَعْمَىٰ

Un jaa-ahul aa’maa

Because there came to him the blind man,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 E. Particles of Promotion حُرُوْفُ التَّحْضِيْضِ (huroof-ut tah-deedi)

 

Particles of Promotion

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

اَلَّا

 

Al-laa

that not/may not

ألَّا فَعَلْتَ

 Al-laa fa-'al-ta

why did you not do it

هَلَّا

 

hull-laa

why did you not

هَلَّا فَعَلْتَ

Hull-laa fa-'al-ta

why did you not do it

لَوْلَا

 

Lau-laa

Why not

فَلَوْلَا إِن كُنتُمْ غَيْرَ مَدِيْنِيْنَ

Fa lau-laa in kun-tum ghai-ra ma-dee-nee-na

Then why do you not, if you are not to be recompensed,

 

A Verb is required after these Particles

F.     Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِ (huroof-ut-tawaq-qu-ee)

 Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِ is one and it is: قَدْ qad. As in قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ  (qad af-laha man tazak-ka) meaning He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself.

 

G.    Particles of Interrogation حُرُوْفُ الْاِسْتِفْهَامِ (huroof-ul istef-haami)

 

Particles of Interrogation

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

مَا

 

maa

What/did you


وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَاهِيَةُۢ

 

Wa maa adraa-ka maa hiya

And what can make you know what that is

اَلْهَمْزَةُ

 

Al-ham-zaa

Are (you)?

قَالُوا أَإِنَّكَ لَأَنتَيُوسُفُ

 

Qaa-lu a-inna-ka la-anta Yu-sufu

They said, "Are you indeed Joseph?

هَلْ

 

hull

Are (you)

هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ الْجُنُودِ

 

Hull ata-ka hadee-thul ju-nood

Has there reached you the story of the soldiers

 

H.     Particles of Deterrence/Scolding حُرُوْفُ الرِّدَعِ (huroof-ur ridaa)

 

Particles of Deterrence

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

كَلَّا

 

Kal-la

No, Definitely not

كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

 

Kal-la sau-fa ta'-lamoona)

No! You are going to know.

 

I.     Particles of Verbal Source الْمَصْدَرِيَةُ اَلْحُرُوْفُ (al-huroof-ul mas-da-ria):

 

These are three: مَا, أَنْ, أَنَّ. Particles مَا and أَنَّ enter the Verb and cause it to give meaning of a Verbal Source.


Particles of Verbal Source

Particle meaning

usage

Usage meaning

مَا

 

maa

that

وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ

 

Wa daa-qat alai-him-ul-arda be-maa ra-hu-bat

the earth became insufficient for them in-spite of its breadth

أَنْ

 

un

that

اَعْجَبْنبْي أَنْ ضُرِبْتَ أَي ضَرَبَكَ

 

Aa’jab-ni un duri-bat aye dara-ba-ka

I was surprised that you were hit or he hit you

أَنَّ

 

anna

Because

بِأَنَّ رَبَّكَ أَوْحَىٰ لَهَا

 

Bi-anna rab-ba-ka ow-haa-lahaa

Because your Lord has commanded it.

 

 

Section 9.2 - Active Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلةِ hu-roof-ul 'aa-mi-la-ti

 

A.     Particles that give Nominative  رَفْعٌ raf-'un to its Noun

 

مَا maa and لَا laa are both similar to لَيْسَ (lai-sa) (This incomplete Verb will be introduced later) and act similar to it, as you can say مَا زَيْدٌ قَائماً (maa Zai-dun qaa-i-man) meaning “Zaid is not standing” and لَا عَمْرٌو حَاضِرًا “meaning Amr is not present” in which زَيْدٌ Zaid-un and عَمْرٌو (um-run) are Nouns of مَا maa and لَا laa, and قَائمًا (qai-man) and حَاضِرًا(haa-zi-ran) are their Predicates.

 

B.     Particles that give Accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun to its Noun

 

1.     These are 6 Particles Resembling a Verb حُرُوْفُ الْمُشَبَّهَةِ بِالْفِعْلِ (Huroof-ul mushab-baha-tibil fe'ili):

 

a.   إِنَّ in-na meaning “without a doubt/ definitely” used at the beginning of a Nominative sentence

b. أَنَّ an-na meaning “without a doubt” used in the middle of a sentence

c. كَأنَّ ka-an-na meaning “like/similar”

d. لٰكِنَّ laa-kin-na meaning “but”

e. لَيْتَ lai-ta meaning “(I) wish/would that”

f. لَعَلَّ la-al-la meaning “perhaps”

 

These Particles are entered on اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ al-mub-ta-daa-u which is then given the name Noun of the Subject اَلْمُبْتَدَاءُ al-mub-ta-daa-u and the Predicate is continued to be called its Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ alkha-ba-ru. And Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) status is given to its Noun and Nominative رَفْعٌ(raf-un) status is given to its Predicate as in إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائمٌ in-na Zai-dan qaa-i-mun.

إِنَّin-naand أَنَّ an-na are both used for emphasis and affirmation التَّحْقِيقُ وَ التَّاكِيْدُ(at tah-qee-qu wat takee-du), كَأَنَّ kaa-na for pointing to Similarity, لٰكِنَّ laa-kin-nafor Coordinating Conjunction/ Connective, لَيْتَ (lai-ta) for Desire, and لَعَلَّ (la-al-la) for Possibility.

 

2.     Vocative Particles حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ (huroof-un nidaa) which are 5 in number: يا yaa, أَيَا ayaa, هَيَا ha-yaa, أَي ay’, أَ aa. Last one is called اَلْهمْزَةُالْمَفْتُوْحَةُ(al-hamzah-tul maf-too-ha-tu). These Particles give Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) status for the addressee مُنَادٰى(mu-naa-da) when it is a Possessed مُضَافٌ (mu-daaf) part of the Possessive Compound اَلمُرَكَّبُ الإِضَافِيْ al-mu-rak-kab-ul idaa-fi as in يَا عَبْدَ اللهِ (yaa abdal-laahi).  This is true even if it resembles a Possessed مُضَافٌ mu-daaf part of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ اَلْمُرَكَّبُ al-mu-rak-kab-ul idaa-fi as in يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلًا (yaa tale-an jibil-lan) meaning “O mountain climber”, or is an Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ naki-ra-tun which is undetermined .نَكِرَةٌ غَيْرَ مُعَيَّنَةٍ (naki-ra-tun ghaira mo-'ayya-natin) as in a blind person saying the following:

 يَارَجُلً خُذْ بِيَدِيْ (khudh biyadi yaa raju-lan) meaning “O man, hold me by my hand”.

 

When the addressee is a singular, it is given the status of Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) as in زَيْدُ يَاyaa Zai-du, زيْدَانِ يَا yaa Zai-daa-ni, مُسْلِمُوْنَ يَا yaa mus-li-moona, مُوْسٰى يَا yaa Moosa, and قَاضِيْ يَا yaa qaa-di.

أَيayeis for addressees who arenear and أَيَا ayaa, هَيَا hayaa are for addressees who are far and يَا yaais usually for addressees both near and far.

C.     Particles that give Genitive جَرٌّ jarr-un to its Noun

 

These are 17 Genitive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْجَرِّ hu-roof-ul jarri:

 

1) (ب) اَلْبَاءُ2) مِنْ 3) اِلٰى 4) حَتّٰى 5) فِي 6) (ل) اَللَّامُ 7) رُبَّ

8) (وَ) وَاوُ الْقَسْمِ 9) (تَ) تَاءُ الْقَسْمِ 10) عَنْ 11) عَلٰى

12) كَ كَافُ التَّشْبِيْهِ13) مُذْ 14) مُنْذُ 15) حَاشَا 16) خَلَا 17) عَدَا

 

Table 63 - Genitive جَرٌّjarr-un Particles Meaning and Examples

 

1

2

3

4

5

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

اَلْبَاءُ

 

baa

مِنْ

 

min

اِلٰى

 

ilaa

حَتّٰى

 

Hat-taa

فِي

 

fee

Meaning

With

From

To, Towards

Until

In

Examples

بِالْقَلَمِ

 

Bil-qalami

مِنْ مَكَّةَ

 

mim-makka-tah

اِلٰى الْمَسْجِدِ

 

Ilal-masjidi

 

حَتّٰي حِيْنٍ

 

Hat-ta heen

فِي الْمَسْجِدِ

 

Fil-masjidi

Example Meaning

With pen

From Mecca

Towards masjid

Until a fixed time

In masjid

 

 

 

6

7

8

9

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

ل

 

laam

رُبَّ

 

Rub-baa

وَاوُ الْقَسَمِ

 

Waa-ul-qas-mi

تَاءُ الْقَسَمِ

 

Taa-ul qas-mi

Meaning

For

Some, a bit

Letter وَ for oath

Letter تَ for oath

Examples

لِزَيْدٍ

 

li-Zaidin

رُبَّ ضَارَّةٍ نَافِعَةَ

 

Rub-ba daar-ratin naa-fiah

وَاللهِ

 

Wal-lahi

تَاللهِ

 

Tal-lahi

Example Meaning

For Zaid

A bit harmful or useful

By Allah

By Allah

 

 

 

10

11

12

13

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

عَنْ

 

un

عَلٰى

 

alaa

كَافُ التَّشْبِيهِ

 (كَ)

 

Kaaf-ut tash-beehi

مُذْ

 

muz

Meaning

From

On, at

Like

From

Examples

عنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ

 

Un-abee Huraira-ta

عَلٰى اَلْعَرْشِ

 

Alal- arshi

كَالْقَمَرِ

 

Kal-qamari

مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذْ يَوْمِ اَلُجُمُعَةِ

 

Maa raya-tu-hu muz yaw-mil jumaa

Example Meaning

From Abi Hurairah

On the sky

Like moon

I did not see him since Friday

 

 

 

14

15

16

17

Genitive Particle

جَرٌّ

مُنْذُ

 

Mun-zu

حَاشَا

 

Haa-shaa

خَلَا

 

Kha-laa

عَدَا

 

adaa

Meaning

Ago, with etc.

Forbid, preserve

Had passed, meet in private, be or become empty

Except

Examples

مَا رَأَيْتُ مُنْذُ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ

 

Maa raya-tu-hu mun-zu yawmil jumaa

حَاشَا لِلّٰهِ

 

Haa-shaa lil-lahi

--

--

Example Meaning

I did not see him from Friday onwards

 

Allah forbid or, Allah preserve us

--

--

 

These Particles when used with a Noun make it Genitive جَرٌّ jar-run by changing the harakah to kasrahof the last letter as in اَلْمَالُ لِزَيْدٍ (al-maa-lu li-Zaidin).

 

D.    Particles that give Jussive state جَزْمٌ (jaz-mun) to its (Feil)        

 

There are Particles that give Jussive جَزَمٌ jaz-munstatus to Imperfect Tense مُضَارِعٌ. These are five:

لَمْlum, لَمَّا lum-maa, لامُ اَلْأَمْرِ lam-ul amr, لَاءُ النَّهْيِ laa-un nahee, إِنْ الشَّرْطِيَةُ in-nal shar-ti-ya

Examples and Meaning:

لَمْ يَنْصُرْlumyan-sur - He did not Help

لَمَّا يَنْصُرْ lum-maa yan-sur - He has not helped yet           

وَلِيَنْصُرْwa-li-yan-sur- He should help

لَا تَنْصُرْlaa-tan-sur- Do not help

إِنْ تَنْصُرْ أَنْصُرْ intan-sur an-sur - If you help, I will help

إِنْenters in two sentences as in إِنْ تَضْرِبْ أَضْرِبْ (in tad-rib ad-rib) meaning “if you strike, I will strike”. The first sentence is named Condition شَرْطٌ(shar-tun) and second sentence is called Response جَزاءٌ(jaz-aa). and إِنْ in-na gives the meaning of future Tense مُضَارِعٌ(mu-daa-ri-un) even though it is entered on a past tense. For example,

ضَرَبْتُ ضَرَبْتَ إِنْ(in zarab-ta zarb-tu) meaning “if you strike, I will strike”. Here Jussive جَزَمٌ (jaz-mun) sign is assumed hidden because the past tense is not flexible.

 

E. لَا لِنَفْيُ الْجِنْسِ La Li-Nafi-ul Jinsi

 

لَا La Li-Nafi-ulJinswhich is used for elimination of all things of a kind نَفْيُ الْجِنْسِ (nafi-ul jinsi) and its Noun is Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and its Predicate الْخَبَرُ al-kha-baru is Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un. Its Noun is usually the Possessed مُضَافٌ mu-daaf-unpart of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ  اَلْمُرَكَّبُ al-mu-rak-kab-ul idaafi time as in لَا غُلَامَ رَجُلٍ مَوْجُوْدٌ فِي الدَّارِ(laa ghu-laama rajuli maw-joo-dun fid-daari) meaning “there is no servant of a man present in the house”. غُلَامَ ghu-laa-ma here is Accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun.

 

***

 

 

 

 

 

***

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

1.0a - Introduction to Quranic Arabic Grammar For Beginners

1.0 - Why Learn Arabic?