Sarf and Nahw Summary: 5.1/5.2/5.3/5.4 - Verbal Sentence Rules


 Verbal Sentence Rules


Section 5.1 - Rules for E’raab


a.   Ma’toof مَعْطُوْف and Ma’toof alaihi مَعْطُوْف عَلَيْهِ have the same ‘eraab (flexibility)

b.    E’raab إِعْرَابof a sentence is تَقْدِيْرِي (supposed) and can be any of the three Nominative, Accusative, or Genitive.

c.     A sentence can be conjuncted/added to another sentence.


i)      Permanence (دَوَام): Both Nominal sentence and demonstrative compound indicate permanence (دَوَام) because they do not depend on time.


ii)       When Nominal sentence becomes a state (حَال), then (الْوَاو حَالِية) waaw haalia (called raabit رَابِط) is not needed. If not then it becomes (جُمْلَة مُستَقِلة) jumla mustaqil. Haal (حَال) and zulhaal (ذُوْالْحَال) are temporary and come in a verbal sentence construction because it does not have permanence (دَوَام).


iii)   Intransitive (لَازِم) and Transitive (مُتَعَدِّي)

If a verb is mut’addi, then maf’ool laazim (مَفعُوْل لَازِم) is made mut’addi (مُتَعَدِّي) with a preposition if it is not already.





Section 5.2 - Adverb of time/place (ظَرْف)


a.     These are two types: (ظَرْف زَمَان/ظَرْف مَكان)

b.    These are inflexible and are maf’ool Fihi (مَفعُوْل فِيْهِ).

c.     For example, (يَوم) when it is nakira then it means that day

d.    If definite (الْيَوْم), then it means the day of recompense (qayamah) when used in Qur’an. Otherwise, it may mean a particular day.




Section 5.3 - Pronouns as Actors/Subject in a Verb


A verb always requires an actor (subject) since the action is happening. This can happen in 3 ways:


i)    An actor is explicitly mentioned with a noun, a compound, or a sentence. This is not given a specific name and is simply called an actor or subject of the verb.


ii)  An actor is implicitly mentioned as a pronoun. This pronoun is called an implicit pronoun (ضَمِيْر مُسْتَتِر). In a Perfect tense (فِعْل مَاضِيْ), conjugations 1 and 4 have these pronouns implicit/hidden in the verb. For conjugation 1 which is single, 3rd person masculine, the pronoun is hua (هُوَ) and in conjugation 4 which is single, 3rd person, feminine, the pronoun is (هِيَ).


iii)   An actor is explicitly mentioned and is viewable as a pronoun in the verb in conjugation. This is called an explicit pronoun (ضَمِيْر بارز).  Out of the 14 conjugations (تصريف), remaining all 12 falls in this category.


Example: تأتِيْهِمْ has actor hidden (مُسْتَتِر) which is hiya (هِيَ) and hum (هُمْ) is visible (بَارِز).


This phenomenon of pronoun hiding can occur in:

a.      For perfect verb, conjugations 1 (3rdperson masculine) & 4 (3rd person feminine).

b.    For imperfect verb, in conjugations 1 (3rd person Singular masculine), 4 (3rd person Singular feminine), 7 (2nd person Singular masculine), 13 (1st person Singular masculine/Feminine), & 14 (1stperson dual/plural masculine/feminine).

c.     For the imperfect verb, in conjugation 1 (2nd person Singular masculine) of the imperatives, and the active and passive participles.



Section 5.4 - General (عامَّة) and Specific (خاصّة) Nouns/Verbs Assumed for Omitted (مَحْذُوْف)


1.    These are used for Mahzoof nouns and verbs. These are some examples:


a.     Af’aal ‘Aamma (أَفْعَال عَامَّة)

ثَبَتَ، حُصُوْلٌ، كَوَنَ، مَوجُوْدٌ ثَابِتٌ،...   


b.    Af’aal Khaassa (أَفْعَال خَاصَّة)


These are used depending upon the situation, for example (مَبْعُوْثً)


وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ (مَبْعُوْثً محذوف) مِنْ قَبْلِكَ

And of course, the messengers (were sent) before you have been mocked.


This is how the derivative noun (الْمُشْتَقُّ) becomes shibhul Jumla شِبْهَةُ الْجُمْلَة from shibhul feil because time is not associated with it.