4.1C/4.1C1 - Genitive Compound

 


C. Genitive Compound
الْمُرَكَّبُ الجَّارِيْ


To understand a Genitive Compound, first, we need to know the Genitive Particle/ Prepositions in Arabic. Genitive Particles حَرْفُ الْجَرِّ har-fu jar-rin are equivalent to Prepositions and when used with a Noun, cause it to go into a Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) State.

In Arabic, these are words/alphabets governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in “he is going towards the mosque”, or “I am with Zaid”. That is, prepositions are used to connect Nouns or Nouns and pronouns.

 

A Particle in this category is generally referred to as جَارٌ (jaa-run) and the Noun after it is called مَجْرَوْرٌ (maj-roo-run) and the compound is called a Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ الجَّارِيْ (al-murak-kab-uj Jaa-ri).

There are 17 prepositions or Particles of Jarr حَرُوْفُ الْجَرِّ huroof-ul jarri in Arabic as listed below:

 

1.(ب) اَلْبَاءُ.  2. (ت) اَلتَّاءُ 3. (ك) اَلْكَافُ 4.(ل) اَللَّامُ   5. (و)اَلْوَاوُ  6. مُذْ 7. مُنْذُ.  8. خَلَا 9. عَدَا 10.رُبَّ 11. حَاشَا 12.مِنْ  13. عَنْ  14. عَلَىٰ 15.حَتَّىٰ  16. فِيْ 17. اِلَىٰ

 

For our purpose, we will be studying eleven of these since these are used commonly in Al-Qur’an shown below in Table 12.

 

Table 12 – Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Particles – Prepositions

 

Particle

Meaning/Explanation

Example

بِ

Be

This alphabet gives the meaning of “with” in Arabic

بِالْقَلَمِ

bil qalami

 meaning with pen

تَ

ta

Used in Al-Qur’an for an oath, that is only used for swearing by Allah SWT.

تَاللهِ

tal-lahi

meaning By God

كَ

ka

Meaning “similar to”, Used for comparing, showing similarity

 

كَالْقَمَرِ

kal-qama-ri

meaning “like moon”

لِ

lee

Used for the word “for”

لِزَيْدٍ

lee-Zaidin

meaning “for Zaid”

وَ

wa

Used for oath

وَاللهِ

wal-lahi

 meaning by God (I swear to God)

مِنْ

min

Meaning “from"

مِنَ البَيْتِ

min-al-baiti

meaning “from the house”

عَنْ

un

Meaning “from (a person)”

عَن اَبِيْ هُرَيرَةَ

Un abi-huraira-ta

meaning “from Abu Hurairah”

عَلٰى

alaa

Meaning “upon/on”

عَلَٰى الْكُرْسِيْ

Alal-kursi

meaning “on the chair”

حَتَّىٰ

Hat-taa

Meaning “until”

حَتَّيٰ حِيْنٍ

Hatta-heen

meaning “until an appointed time”

فِيْ

fee

Meaning “in/inside"

فِيْ الدُّنْيَا

Fid-du-ni-ya

meaning “in the world”

اِلَىٰ

ilaa

Meaning “to/towards”

اِلٰي الْمَسْجِدِ

Ilal-masjid

meaning “towards masjid”

 

 Use of pronouns in a Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Compound


Some Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Particle/ Prepositions are used with pronouns also. Since Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Particle/Prepositions give Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state to the Noun, the pronouns used with these Particles are the ones in Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state which have been mentioned in the previous chapter. Following tables 13 through 17 show commonly used pronouns with Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Particle/Prepositions:

 

Table 13 - Use of Preposition ب with Personal Pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

بِهِ

 

Bihi

 

With, was, on him

بِهِمَا

 

Bihi-maa

 

With, was, on those two males

بِهِمْ

 

Bi-him

 

With, was, on them males

female

بِهَا

 

Bi-haa

 

With, was, on her

بِهِمَا

 

Bi-himaa

 

With, was, on those two females

بِهِنَّ

 

Bi-hinna

 

With, was, on all those females

2nd person

male

بِكَ

 

Bi-kaa

 

With, was, on you (male)

بِكُمَا

 

Bi-kumaa

 

With, was, on you two (males)

بِكُمْ

 

Bi-kum

 

With, was, on you all (males)

female

بِكِ

 

Bi-kee

 

With, was, on you (female)

بِكُمَا

 

Bi-kumaa

 

With, was, on you two (females)

بِكُنَّ

 

Bi-kun-na

 

With, was, on you all (females)

1st Person

male

 

بِيْ

 

 (Bee)

 

With, was, on me

 

 

 

بِنَا

 

 (Bi-naa)

 

With, was, on us

female

 

Table 14 - Use of Preposition فِيْ with Personal Pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

فِيْهِ

 

 (Fee-he)

 

In, among, to, about him

 

فِيْهِمَا

 

 (Fee-hima)

 

 

In, among, to, about both (male)

 

فِيْهِمْ

 

 (Fee-him)

 

 

 

In, among, to, about them (male)

female

فِيْهَا

 

 (Fee-haa)

 

In, among, to, about her

فِيْهِمَا

 

 (Fee-himaa)

 

In, among, to, about both (female)

فِيْهِنَّ

 

 (Fee-hinna)

 

In, among, to, about them (female)

 

2nd person

male

فِيْكَ

 

 (Fee-ka)

 

In, among, to, about you

فِيْكُمَا

 

 (Fee-kuma)

 

In, among, to, about you both

فِيْكُمْ

 

 (Fee-kum)

 

In, among, to, about you all (male)

female

فِيكِ

 

 (Fee-ki)

 

In, among, to, about you (female)

فِيْكُمَا

 

 (Fee-kuma)

 

In, among, to, about you both (female)

 

فِيْكُنَّ

 

 (Fee-kun-na)

 

In, among, to, about you all (female)

1st Person

male

فِيَّ

 

 (Fee-ya)

 

In, among, to, about me

 

فِيْنَا

 

 (Fee-na)

 

In, among, to, about us

female

 

Table 15 - Use of Preposition مِنْ with Personal pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

مِنْهُ

 

 (min-hu)

 

From, among, in, of him

مِنْهُمَا

 

 (min-hu-maa)

 

(From, among, in, of) both (males)

 

مِنْهُمْ

 

 (min-hum)

 

From them, among them/in them/of them

 

 

 

 

female

مِنْهَا

 

 (min-haa)

 

From, among, in, of her

مِنْهُمَا

 

 (min-hu-maa)

 

(From, among, in, of) both (female)

 

مِنْهُنَّ

 

 (min-hun-naa)

 

(From, among, in, of) them (female)

2nd person

male

مِنْكُمْ

 

 (min-kum)

 

From, among, in, of you

 

مِنْكُمَا

 

 (min-ku-maa)

 

(From, among, in, of)  you both

مِنْكُمْ

 

 (min-kum)

 

(From, among, in, of) you all (male)

female

مِنْكِ

 

 (min-kee)

 

From, among, in, of you (female)

 

 

مِنْكُمَا

 

 (min-ku-maa)

 

(From, among, in, of)  both (female)

مِنْكُنَّ

 

 (min-kun-naa)

 

(From, among, in, of) all (female)

1st Person

Male

مِنّيْ

 

 (min-nee)

 

From, among, in, of me

مِنَّا

 (min-naa)

 

(From, among, in, of) us all

female

 

 

Table 16 - Use of Preposition لَ with Personal pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

لَهٌ

 (la-hu)

 

For, from, of him

لَهُمَا

 

 (la-hu-maa)

 

For, from, of them both (male)

لَهُم

 

 (la-hum)

 

For, from, of them all (male)

female

لَهَا

 

 (la-haa)

 

For, from, of her

لَهُمَا

 

 (la-hu-maa)

 

For, from, of them both (female)

لَهُنَّ

 (la-hun-na)

 

For, from, of them all (female)

2nd person

male

لَكَ

 

 (la-ka)

 

For, from, of you (male)

لَكُمَا

 

 (la-ku-maa)

 

For, from, of both of you (male)

لَكُمْ

 

 (la-kum)

 

For, from, of you all (male)

female

لَكِ

 

 (la-kee)

 

For, from, of you (female)

لَكُمَا

 

 (la-ku-maa)

 

For, from, of both of you (female)

لَهُنَّ

 

 (la-hun-na)

 

For, from, of you all (female)

1st Person

male

لِيَ

 

 

 (lee-ya)

for, from, of me

لَنَا

 

 (la-naa)

 

For, from, of us

female

 

Table 17 - Use of Preposition عَنْ with Personal pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

عَنْهُ

 

 (an-hu)

 

For, from, on him

عَنْهُمَا

 

 (an-hu-maa)

 

For, from, on them both

عَنْهُمْ

 

 (an-hum)

 

For, from, on them all

female

عَنْهَا

 

 (an-haa)

 

For, from, on her

عَنهُمَا

 

 (an-hu-maa)

 

For,

from, on

 

them both (female)

عَنْهُنَّ

 

 (an-hun-na)

 

For, from, on them all (female)

2nd person

male

عَنْكَ

 

 

 (an-ka)

 

For, from, on you (male)

عَنْكُمَا

 

 (an-ku-maa)

 

For, from, on you both (male)

عْنْكُمْ

 

 (an-kum)

 

For, from, on you all (male)

female

عَنْكِ

 

 (an-kee)

 

For, from, on you (female)

عَنْكُمَا

 

 (an-ku-maa)

 

For, from, on you both (female)

عَنْهُنَّ

 

 (an-hun-na)

 

For, from, on you all (female)

1st Person

male

عَنِّي

 

 (an-nee)

 

For, from, on me

عَنَّا

 

 (an-naa)

 

For, from, on us

 

female

 

Table 18 - Use of Preposition عَلٰى with Personal pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

عَلِيْهِ

 

 (alai-hee)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

عَلِيْهِمَا

 

 (alai-himaa)

 

Against those two

عَلِيْهِمْ

 

 (alai-him)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

female

عَلِيْهَا

 

 (alai-haa)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْهِمَا

 

 (alai-himaa)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْهِنَّ

 (alai-in-na)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

2nd person

male

عَلِيْكَ

 

 (alai-ka)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْكُما

 

 (alai-ku-maa)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْكُنَّ

 

 (alai-kun-naa)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

female

عَلِيْكِ

 

 (alai-kee)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْكُمَا

 

 (alai-ku-maa)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْهِنَّ

 

 (alai-hin-na)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

1st Person

male

عَلَيَّ

 

 (alai-ya)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

عَلِيْنَا

 

 (alai-naa)

 

Against, over, for, upon him

 

 

female

 

Table 19 - Use of Preposition اِلٰى with Personal pronouns

 

 

Gender

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

male

اِلِيْهِ

 (ilai-hee)

To, at, for him

اِلِيْهِمَا

 (ilai-himaa)

To, at, for both of them (male)

 

اِلِيْهِمْ

 (ilai-him)

To, at, for them (male)

 

female

اِلَيْهِا

 (ilai-haa)

To, at, for her

 

اِلِيْهِمَا

 (ilai-himaa)

To, at, for both of them (female)

 

اِلِيْهِنَّ

 (ilai-hin-na)

To, at, for them (female)

 

2nd person

male

اِلَيْكَ

 (ilai-ka)

To, at, for you (male)

 

اِلَيْكُمَا

 (ilai-ku-maa)

To, at, for both of you (male)

 

اِلَيْهِكُمْ

 (ilai-kum)

To, at, for all of you (male)

 

female

اِلَيْكِ

 (ilai-kee)

To, at, for you (female)

اِلَيْكُمَا

 (ilai-ku-maa)

To, at, for both of you (female)

اِلَيْكُنَّ

 (ilai-kun-na)

To, at, for both of you (female)

1st Person

male

اِلَيَّ

 

 (ilai-ya)

To, at, for him/her

 

 

اِلَيْنَا

 (ilai-naa)

To, at, for 2 or more males/females

 

 

female

 

 

***

 

 

 

 

 



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