4.0/4.1/4.1A/4.1B - Compounds/Incomplete /Descriptive/Demonstrative

 


Section 4.0 – Compound
مُرَكَّبٌ mu-rak-ka-bun Definition

 A compound is made up of 2 or more words. Compounds are divided into two categories. Either it is an incomplete compound (a phrase) or a complete compound (a sentence). An incomplete compound is something that does not convey a message completely and leaves a listener unsure about what was said. For example, if I say the Book of philosophy, one may ask the question: what about it? A complete compound conveys a message and the listener understands what is being meant. For example, if I say this is a book of philosophy, this would be a complete sentence.


An incomplete compound is calledالْمُرَكّبُ الْغَيْرُ مُفِيْدُ  mu-rak-ka-bul ghai-ri-mu-fee-dinwhich means non-useful compound and a complete compound is called مُرَكَّبُ الْمُفِيْدِ mu-rak-ka-bul mu-fee-di which means useful compound. It is also called المُرَكَّبُ التَّامِّ mu-rak-kabu-tam-mi or a complete compound/ sentence.

An incomplete compound is used as a part of a complete compound or sentence.

 

Section 4.1 - Incomplete Compounds المُرَكّبُ الْغَيْرُ الْمُفِيْدُ al-mu-rak-ka-bul ghai-rul mu-fee-di

 

There are four commonly incomplete compounds:

A. Descriptive Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ التَّوصِيْفِيْ (al-mu-rak-kab-ut tausifi)

B. Demonstrative Compound  الْمُرَكَّبُ الْاِشَارِيْ (al-mu-rak-kab-ul ishari)

C. Possessive Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ الْإِضَافِيْ (al-mu-rak-kab-ulidaafi)

D. Genitive Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ الجَّارِيْ  (al-mu-rak-kab-ul jaari) and Particles حُرُوْفُ الْجَرِّ (huroof-ul-jarri

 

Each of these will be described in detail in the following sections.

 

 

A. Descriptive Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ التَّوصِيْفِيْ al-mu-rak-ka-but Tau-si-fee

 

A Descriptive Compound is that in which a quality or a descriptive Noun (an adjective) is associated with another Noun. For example, intelligent man, scholarly woman, black pen, etc. The Noun that is described is called a مَوْصُوْفٌ (mau-soo-fun) and the quality/ description is called an adjective صِفَّةٌ (Sif-fa-tun).  Following rules apply:

 

Rule no. 1: It is required that صِفَّةٌ Sif-fa-tun follow the Mau-soof in all 4 requirements for a Noun. It should have the same wus-at, jins, adad,and flexibility. If a مُوْصُوْفٌ mau-soo-funis a definite Noun, male, single and Nominative, then, صِفَّةٌ sif-fa-tun also has to have the same properties.

 

Rule no. 2: the described مُوْصُوْفٌ (mau-soo-fun) comes before the adjective صِفَّةٌ (sif-fa-tun) which is the opposite of English language usage where adjective comes first and described مُوْصُوْفٌ (mau-soof-un) after it.

 

Rule no. 3: An additional rule you should be aware of is that in numbers (adad) part of the properties, if the مُوْصُوْفٌ (mau-soof-un) is a non-intelligent being, then صِفَّةٌ Sif-fa-tun can be used as a singular. In this case مُوْصُوْفٌ (mau-soof-un) could be, for example, a definite Noun/ plural/ female/ Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and its صِفَّةٌ (Sif-fa-tun) could be a definite Noun/ single/ female/ accusative. For example, اَبْوَابٌ مَفَاتِيْحٌ ab-waa-bun ma-faa-tee-hun meaning open doors can also be اَبْوَابٌ مَفْتُوْحَةٌ ab-waa-bunmaf-too-ha-tun.

 

Following are a few examples:

 

1.     A scholarly man رَجُلٌ عَالِمٌ ra-ju-lunaa-li-mun Note that raju-lun is an indefinite Noun, masculine, singular and flexible in the state of Nominative. Therefore, عَالِمٌ (aa-li-mun) is also indefinite, masculine, singular, and Nominative. If we were to say “the scholarly man”, since we are making it a specific person, the proper translation would be اَلرَّجُلُ العَالِمُ ar-rajul-ulaa-li-mu. The word for man was made definite by adding اَلْ (al) which also replaces the tanweento a single dammahand therefore the صِفَّةٌ (sif-fa-tun) has to be a definite and an اَلْ (al) was added to it to make it definite.

 

2.     Two scholarly women would be صَالِحَتَانِ إِمْرَأتَانِ (Im-ra-ata-ni Sa-le-ha-ta-ni).  Note that, إِمْرَأتَانِ (meaning two women) is a مُثَنّٰى  (mu-than-na) dual for إِمْرَأةٌ (meaning a single woman).  صَالِحَتَانِ is a مُثَنّٰى (mu-than-na) dual for صَالِحَةٌ. So, both صِفَّةٌ (Sif-fa-tun) and (Mau-soo-fun) are indefinite, female, مُثَنّٰى (mu-than-na) dual and both are Nominative.

 

3.     Good kids would be translated as الْطَيِّبُوْنَ اَلْاَطْفَالُ al-at-faa-lul tay-yi-boo-na. The (mau-soof) اَلْاَطْفَالُ al-at-faa-lu is plural for طِفْلٌ tif-lun meaning a child and الْطَيِّبُوْنَ is plural for طَيِّبٌ tay-yi-bunmeaning good. So, both (mau-soof) and صِفَّةٌ (Sif-fa-tun) are definite by اَلْ, male, plural, and are in Nominative.

 

Some examples of Descriptive Compounds with their meaning are given in Table 9 below. 

 

Table 9 - Descriptive Compound Examples

 

Phrase/Incomplete Compound

Arabic Version

Transliteration

Properties of صِفَّةٌ Sif-fa-tun and Mau-soof-un

Truthful Muslim (single)

مُسْلِمٌ صَادِقٌ

Mus-li-mun Saa-diq-un

Male, single, common Noun in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Two Truthful Muslims (mu-than-na) dual

مُسْلِمانِ صَادِقَانِ

Mus-li-maa-ni Sa-di-qaa-ni

Male, dual, common Noun in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُثَنَّىٰ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Truthful Muslims (plural)

مُسْلِمُوْنَ صَادِقُوْنَ

Mus-li-moo-na Saa-di-qoo-na

Male, plural, common Noun in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ، جَمْعٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Truthful Muslimahs (single)

مُسْلِمَةٌ صَادِقَةٌ

Mus-li-ma-tun Sa-di-qa-tun

Female, single, common Noun in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُوْنَّثٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Two Truthful Mus-limahs (dual)

مُسْلِمَتَانِ صَادِقَتَانِ

Mus-li-ma-taa-ni Saa-di-qa-taa-ni

Female, dual, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُوْنَّثٌ ، مُثَنَّى ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Truthful Muslimahs (plural)

مُسْلِمَاتٌ صَادِقَاتٌ

Mus-li-maa-tun Saa-di-qaa-tun

Female, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُوْنَّثٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Old Book

كِتَابٌ قَدِيْمٌ

Ki-taa-bun Qa-dee-mun

Male, single, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Two old books

كِتَابَانِ قَدِيْمَانِ

Ki-taa-baa-ni Qa-dee-maa-ni

Male, dual, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُثَنَّى ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Old Books

كُتُبٌ قُدْمَاءٌ or

كُتُبٌ قَدِيْمٌ

Ku-tu-bun Qud-maa-un or

Kut-tu-bun Qa-dee-mun

Male, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Open doors

اَبْوَابٌ مَفْتُوْحٌ

Can also be

اَبْوَابٌ مَفْتُوْحَةٌ

 

Ab-wabun Maf-tu-ha-tun

Male, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Numbered days

اَيَّامٌ مَعْدَوْدَاتٌ

This can also be

 

اَيَّامٌ مَعْدَوْدَةٌ

Ayya-mun ma’doo-daa-tun Or

Ayya-mun Ma’doo-da-tun

Male, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

It is also allowed to use a single female for all plurals which are non-intelligent beings

مُذَكَّرٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Straight path

صِرَاطٌ مُسْتَقِيْمٌ

Si-raa-tum mus-ta-qee-mun

Male, single common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Beautiful watch

اَلسَّاعَاتُ الْجَمِيْلَاَتُ

As-sa-aa-tul jam-ee-laa-tu

Female, plural, proper Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُوْنَّثٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، مَعْرِفَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Two hardworking boys

اَلْوَلَدَانِ مُجْتَهِدَانِ

Al-wala-daa-ni muj-ta-hi-da-ni

Male, plural, proper Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، مَعْرِفَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Small book

كِتَابً صَغِيْرً

Kita-bun Sa-ghee-run

Male, single, accusative, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Big Mosque

مَسْجِدٌ كَبِيْرٌ

Mas-ji-dun Ka-bee-run

Male, single, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

 

 

 

B. Demonstrative Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ الْاِشَارِيْ al-mu-rak-ka-bul ishaa-ri

 

To Understand a Demonstrative Compound, first we need to know the demonstrative pronouns in Arabic. These are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

Again, unlike English, in Arabic language, demonstrative pronouns change with three of the four requirements for a Noun. That is Gender, Number, and Flexibility. The flexibility remains unaffected. Also, like most other languages including English, they are used to point to an entity either near or far.

 

For example, هٰذَا (haa-zaa) is used for a near entity that is male, single, and in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state. See Table 10 below.

 

Table 10 - Demonstrative pronouns

 

 

Single

مُفْرَدٌ

Muf-rad

Dual مُثَنّٰى

Plural

جَمْعٌ

Jama

Nominative

 رَفْعٌ

raf-un

Accusative/Genitive

نَصْبٌ/جَرٌّ

Nas-bun/jarr-un

Near

هٰذَا

haa-dha

This male

هٰذَانِ

 haa-dhaa-ni

These two

males

هٰذِيْنِ

haa-dhai-ni

These two

males

هٰؤُلٓاءِ

Haa-oo-lai

These

هٰذِہِ

Haa-dhi-hi

This female

هَاتَانِ

Haa-taa-ni

 These two

 females

هَاتَينِ

Haa-tai-ni

These two

 females

Far

ذَالِكَ

Dhaa-li-ka

That male

ذَانِكَ

Dhaa-ni-ka

Those two

males

ذَيْنِكَ

Dhai-ni-ka

Those Two

 males

اُوْلٰٓئِكَ

oo-lai-ka

Those

تِلْكَ

Til-ka

That female

تَانِكَ

Taa-ni-ka

 Those two

females

تَيْنِكَ

Tai-nika

Those two

 females

 

For a beginner, it may be appropriate to memorize the first and fourth columns of the above table 10 above which contains the most used demonstrative pronouns. The full table is provided for a complete picture, awareness, and for later use.

 

A demonstrative compound is made by adding a demonstrative pronoun in front of any Noun with the condition that the three properties gender, number, and flexibility match between them. Note the order is the same in Arabic as in English. The demonstrative pronoun comes first and the Noun being pointed next. See examples in Table 11 below.


Examples:

 

Table 11 – Demonstrative Compound Examples

 

Near

Far

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Males

 

This man هٰذَا رَجُلٌ

These two men

 هٰذَانِ رَجُلَانِ.

These men رِجَالٌ  هٰؤُلٓاءِ.

 

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Males

 

This man هٰذَا رَجُلٌ

These two men

 هٰذِيْنِ رَجُلَيْنِ

Those men هٰؤُلٓاءِ رِجَالٌ

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Females

 

That woman إِمْرَاةٌ هٰذِہِ

Those two women

 هَاتَانِ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women اُوْلٰٓئِكَ نِسَاءٌ

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Females

 

That woman هٰذِهِ إِمْرَاةٌ

Those two women

 هَاتَانِ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women هٰوْلَاءِ نِسَاءٌ

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Males

 

This man is written as

ذَالِكَ رَجُلٌ

These two men

 ذَانِكَ رَجُلَانِ.

These men رِجَالٌ  هٰؤُلٓاءِ.

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Males

 

 

This man تِلْكَ رَجُلٌ

These two men

 ذَيْنِكَ رَجُلَيْنِ

Those men هٰؤُلٓاءِ رِجَالٌ

 

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Females

 

That woman هٰذِهِ إِمْرَاةٌ

Those two women

 تَانِكَ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women اُوْلٰٓئِكَ نِسَاءٌ

 

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jar-un) Females

 

That woman هٰذِهِ إِمْرَاةٌ

Those two women

 تَيْنِكَ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women هٰوْلَاءِ نِسَاءٌ

 

 

 

 

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