8.7/8.8 - Forms of three alphabet Root Words/Weak Imperfect Tense


Section 8.7 - Forms of three alphabet Root Words
اَبْوَابُ الْثُلَاثِيُ الْمُجَرَّدُ

 

الْثُلَاثِيُ ath-thu-laa-ti literally means three and الْمُجَرَّدُ al-mujar-rad means free form (empty/without short vowels). We have used three different free forms of three alphabet root word فعلwhich were فَعَلَ fa-al-a, فَعِلَ fa-al-a, فَعُلَ fa-u-la. Only ع alphabet short vowel or harakah was changed. Remember again that فعل (Alphabets ل عف) is used as a base for defining the location alphabet. For example, in the word سَمِعَ sa-mi-a, the alphabet س is the ف location, م alphabet is the ع location and ع is the ل location.

 

You can see that, if we did all combinations of three short vowels for each of the three alphabets, there would be 9 different forms for past tense and another 9 for imperfect tense. Fortunately, only a few of these combinations are used in Arabic and fewer yet which are most commonly used.

The linguists determined that six out of all these combinations are used most commonly. And for non-native readers, a method was devised by using the first alphabet from each of these as an identifier given in a parenthesis to let the reader know which of these six forms a given Verb fits into.

 

These combinations are based on the short vowel of the past tense with fathah, kasrah and dammah with imperfect tense short vowel combination and these are:

 

Table 52 – Forms of three alphabet Root Words اَبْوَابُ الْثُّلَاثِيُ الْمُجَرَّدُ ab-waa-buth-thu-lathi-ul mu-jar-radu

 

 

harakah on ع alphabet of Past tense

Past Tense

harakah on ع alphabet of imperfect tense

Imperfect tense

Designation alphabet

Combination 1

fathah on past and fathah/kasrah/dammah on imperfect

1

fathah on ع alphabet

فَتَحَ

 

Fa-ta-ha

fathah on ع

alphabet

يَفْتَحُ

 

Yaf-ta-hu

ف

2

fathah on ع alphabet

ضَرَبَ

Da-ra-ba

kasrah on ع

alphabet

يَضْرِبُ

 

Yad-ri-bu

ض

3

fathah on ع alphabet

نَصَرَ

 

Na-sa-ra

dammah on ع alphabet

يَنْصُرُ

 

Yan-su-ru

ن

Combination 2

kasrah on past and fat-hah  /kasrah/dammah  on imperfect

4

kasrah on ع alphabet

سَمِعَ

 

Sa-mi-aa

fathah on ع alphabet

يَسْمَعُ

 

Yas-ma-u

س

5

kasrah on ع alphabet

حَسِبَ

 

Ha-si-ba

fathah on ع alphabet

يَحْسَبُ

 

Yah-sa-bu

ح

Combination 2

dammah on past and fat-hah  /kasrah/dammah  on imperfect

6

dammah on ع alphabet

كَرُمَ

 

Ka-ru-ma

dammah on ع alphabet

يَكْرُمُ

 

Yak-ru-mu

ك

 

The crossed-out words are combinations that are not part of the six base line forms and are shown for possibility of other combinations.

 

The advantage of this method is that, since Arabic native writers do not use short vowels or harakahs in their writing, specifying an alphabet tells non-native Arabic readers what form it will fit into. For example, if we use three alphabets غ ف ر or غفر, we would not know what short vowels to use. A native speaker would know how to pronounce it based on the context of the sentence. But if we write (ف)غفر, then we know it is based on form فَتَحَ fa-ta-haand we will pronounce this word as غَفَرَ gha-fa-ra meaning he forgave, its imperfect would beيغْفِرُ yagh-fi-ru meaning he forgives/he will forgive and its passive would be غُفِرَ ghu-fi-ra meaning he was forgiven.

 

Following are few examples of how to use the forms in adding short vowels:

 

Table 53– Examples of Forms of three alphabet Root Words اَلْأَبْوَابُ الْثُّلَاثِيُ الْمُجَرَّدُ al-abwaa-buth thu-laa-thi-ul mu-jar-rad

 

Root

 

 

Form

بَابٌ

Baa-bun

Past Tense

مَاضي

Maa-di

Imperfect Tense

مُضَارِعٌ

Mu-da-ri-un

Source

مَصْدَرٌ

Mas-dar-un

س ج د

 (ن)

سَجَدَ

Sa-ja-da

He prostrated

يَسْجُدُ

Yas-ju-du

he is prostrating or will prostrate

 

سَجْدًا

Sa-ja-dan

To prostrate

ك ت ب

 (ن)

كَتَبَ

Ka-ta-ba

He wrote

يَكتُبُ

Yak-tu-bu

He is writing/will write

كَتَبًا

Ka-ta-ban

To write

خ ر ج

 (ن)

خَرَجَ

Kha-ra-ja

He went out

يَخْرُجُ

Yakh-ru-ju

He is going out or will go out

خَرَجًا

Kha-ra-jan

To go out

ر ز ق

 (ن)

رَزَقَ

Ra-za-qa

He provided sustenance

يَرْزُقُ

Yar-zu-qu

He is or will provide sustenance

رِزْقًا

Riz-khan

To provide sustenance

ع ل م

 (س)

عَلِمَ

'Ali-ma

He knew

يَعْلَمُ

Y'a-la-mu

He knows or will know

عِلْمًا

'Il-man

To know

ت ب ع

 (س)

تَبِعَ

Ta-ba-'a

He followed

يَتْبَعُ

Yat-ba-'u

He follows or will follow

تَبْعًا

Tab-'an

To follow

غ ف ر

 (ض)

غَفَرَ

Gha-fa-ra

He forgave

يَغْفِرُ

Yagh-fi-ru

he forgives or will forgive

مَغفِرَةً/غُفرَانًا

Ghuf-raa-nan

To forgive

م ل ك

 (ض)

مَلَكَ

Ma-la-ka

He owned

يَمْلِكُ

Yam-li-ku

He owns or will own

مَلْكًا /مُلْكًا /مِلْكًا

Mul-kan

To own

ق ط ع

 (ف)

قَطَعَ

Qa-ta-'a

He cut

يَقْطَعُ

Yaq-ta-'u

He cuts or will cut

قَطَعًا

Qat-'an

To cut

 

م ن ع

 (ف)

مَنَعَ

Ma-na-'a

He prohibited

 

يَمْنَعُ

Yam-na-'u

He is prohibiting or will prohibit

مَنَعًا

Man-'an

To prohibit

ص ب ر

 (ض)

صَبَرَ

Sa-ba-ra

He was patient

 

يَصْبِرُ

Yas-bi-ru

He is or will be patient

صَبَرًا

Sab-ran

To be patient

ق ب ل

 (س)

قَبِلَ

Qa-bi-la

He accepted

يَقْبَلُ

Yaq-ba-lu

He is accepting or will accept

 قُبُوْلًا

Qu-boo-lan

To accept

 

ن ز ل

 (ض)

نَزَلَ

Na-za-la

He came down

يَنْزِلُ

Yan-zi-lu

He is coming down or will come down

نُزُوْلًا

Nu-zoo-lan

To come down

 

ش ف ع

 (ف)

شَفَعَ

Sha-fa-aa

He enclosed

يَشفَعُ

Yash-fa-u

He encloses or will enclose

شَفَاعَةً

Sha-faa-atan

To enclose

ض ع ف

 (ك)

ضَعُفَ

Da-'u-fa

He was weak

 

يَضْعُفُ

Yad-'u-fu

He is or will be weak

ضَعِيْفًا

Da-'ee-fan

To be weak

ش ه د

 (س)

شَهِدَ

Sha-hi-da

He bore witness

يَشْهَدُ

Yash-ha-du

He bears or will bear witness

شَهِيْدًا

Sha-hee-dan

To witness

ك س ر

 (ض)

كَسَرَ

Ka-sa-ra

He broke

يَكْسِرُ

Yak-si-ru

He breaks or will break

كَسْرًا

Kas-ran

To break

ح م د

 (س)

حَمِدَ

Ha-mi-da

He praised

يْحْمَدُ

Yah-ma-du

He praises or will praise

حَمْدًا

Ham-dan

to praise

ح ك م

 (ن)

حَكَمَ

Ha-ka-ma

He commanded

يَحْكُمُ

Yah-ka-mu

He commands or will command

حُكْمًا

Huk-man

To command

ك ب ر

 (ك)

كَبُرَ

Ka-bu-ra

He became arrogant

يَكْبُرُ

Yak-ba-ru

He is or will become arrogant

كِبْرًا

Kib-ran

To be arrogant

ر ك ب

 (س)

رَكِبَ

Ra-ki-ba

He rode

يَركَبُ

Yar-ka-bu

He rides or will ride

رُكُوْبًا

Ru-koo-ban

To ride

ن ذ ر

 (ن)

نَذَرَ

Na-dha-ra

He made a pledge

يَنْذُرُ

Yan-dhu-ru

He makes or will make a pledge

نَذرًا / نُذُوْرًا

Nadh-ran

To make a pledge

ض ح ك

 (س)

ضَحِكَ

D-hi-ka

He laughed

يَضْحَكُ

Yad-ha-ku

He laughs or will laugh

ضَحِكًا/ضِحِكًا/ضُحِكًا

Da-hi-kan

To laugh

د خ ل

 (ن)

دَخَلَ

 

Da-kha-la

He entered

 

يَدْخُلُ

Yad-khu-lu

He enters or will enter

دَخْلًا

Dakh-lan

To enter

ر ف ع

 (ف)

رَفَعَ

Ra-fa-'a

He raised

يَرْفَعُ

Yar-fa-'u

He raises or will raise

رَفْعًا

Raf-'an

To raise

ف ر ح

 (س)

فَرِحَ

 

Fa-ri-ha

He was happy

يَفْرَحُ

Yaf-ri-hu

He is happy or will be happy

فَرْحًا

Far-han

To be happy

ح س ب

 (س)

حَسِبَ

Ha-si-ba

He assumed

يَحسَبُ

Yah-sa-bu

He assumes or will assume

حسْبًا

Has-ban

To assume

ذ ب ح

 (ف)

ذَبَحَ

Dha-ba-ha

He slaughtered

يَذْبَحُ

Yadh-ba-hu

He slaughters or will slaughter

ذَبْحًا

Dhab-han

To slaughter

ع ب د

 (ن)

عَبَدَ

'Aba-da

He worshipped

يَعْبُدُ

Y'a-bu-du

he worships or will worship

عَبْدًا

'Ab-dan

To worship

ص د ق

 (ن)

صَدَقَ

 

Sa-da-qa

He was truthful

يَصْدُقُ

Yad-du-qu

He is or will be truthful

صِدْقًا/ صَدْقًا

 Sad-qan

To be truthful

ذ ه ب

 (ف)

ذَهَبَ

Dha-ha-ba

He went

يَذْهَبُ

Yadh-ha-bu

He goes or will go

ذَهَابًا/ذِهَابًا/مَذْهَبًا

Dha-ha-ban

To go

ح ف ظ

 (س)

حَفِضَ

Ha-fi-za

He protected

يَحفَضُ

Yah-fa-zu

He protects or will protect

حِفْضًا

Hif-dan

To protect

ذ ك ر

 (ن)

ذَكَرَ

Dha-ka-ra

He remembered

يَذْكُرُ

Yadh-ku-ru

He remembers or will remember

ذِكْرًا

Dhik-ran

To remember

ن ع م

 (ن،ف،س)

نَعِمَ

Na-'e-ma

He favored

يَنْعَمُ

Yan-'a-mu

He is or will be favor

نِعْمَةً

Na'y-ma-tan

To favor

غ ف ل

 (ن)

غَفَلَ

Gha-fa-la

He was unmindful

يَغْفُلُ

Yagh-fu-lu

He is or will be unmindful

غَفَلَةً

Ghaf-la-tan

To be unmindful

ت ر ك

 (ن)

تَرَكَ

Ta-ra-ka

He abandoned

 

يَتْرُكُ

Yat-ru-ku

He abandons or will abandon

تَرْكًا

Ta-ra-kan

To abandon

ج م ل

 (ن ،ك)

جَمَلَ

Ja-ma-la

He was beautiful

يَجمُلُ

Yaj-ma-lu

He is or will be beautiful

جَمَالًا

Ja-maa-lan

To summarize, be beautiful

 

a) لَنْ lun (no meaning): When this Particle enters in front of فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ feil-ul mu-daa-ri-'yee, it creates a strong negative emphasis and also it associates the Verb to future only. By itself, لَنْ lan does not mean anything. Using the فَعَلَ fa-'a-la die, its imperfect tense is يَفْعَلُ yaf-'a-lu which means he does/he is doing/he will do. When used with لَنْ lan, this becomes يَفْعَلَ لَنْ lan yaf-'ala which now means he will definitely not do it. Note that يَفْعَلُ yaf-'alu became يَفْعَلَ yaf-'ala.

 Some Qur’anic examples would be:

 

1) Aal-e-Imran - Verse 92 لَنْ تَنَالُوا الْبِرَّ... meaning: you will never attain true piety ….

 

2) Al-Baqara - Verse 61

 وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ...

Waiz qul-tum lan nasbi-ru alaa ta-aa-min waa-hi-din

meaning: And [recall] when you said, "O Moses, we can never endure one [kind of] food…”

 

3) An-Nabaa’ - Verse 30

 فَذُوقُوا فَلَن نَّزِيدَكُمْ إِلَّا عَذَابًا

Fa-dhoo-qoofa-lan nazeeda-kum illaa adhaa-ba

meaning: “So taste [the penalty], and never will We increase you except in torment”

 

4) Al-Baqara - Verse 80

 وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً

Wa-qaa-loo lan tamas-sa-nan naa-ru illaa aiy-yaa-man ma’doo-da-tan

meaning: And they say, "Never will the Fire touch us, except for a few days.

 

b) اَنْ un (that): When this Particle enters before a الْمُضَارِعِ فِعْلُ feil-ul mu-daa-ri-'i, the Verb gives the meaning of the Source الْمَصْدَرُ al-mas-da-ru. Using the فَعَلَ fa-'ala die again, its imperfect tense is يَفْعَلُ yaf-'alu which means he does/he is doing/he will do. When اَنْ un is added in front يَفْعَلَ اَنْ an yaf-'ala, the meaning now becomes “that he does”.

 

Some examples from al-Qur’an:

 

1) Al-Mulk - Verse 17

 أَنْ يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا

An yur-sila alai-kum haa-si-ban

meaning: that he would not send against you a storm of stones

 

2) An-Noor - Verse 29

 غَيْرَ مَسْكُوْنَةٍ لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا

Laisa alai-kum ju-naa-hun an tad-khu-lu bu-yoo-tan ghai-ra mas-koo-na-tin

meaning: There is no blame upon you for entering houses not inhabited.

 

c) كَيْ  kai (so that): This Particle when added to a فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ fe'il-ulmu-daa-ri-yi, it gives the purpose of the Verb. This construction has been used in al-Qur’an 4-5 times. Some examples are given below:

 

1) An-Nahl - Verse 70

وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا

Wa min-kum man yu-rad-du ilaa ar-dha-lil um-u-ru la-kai laa ya-la-mu baa-da ilmin shai-an

Meaning: And among you is he who is reversed to the most decrepit [old] age so that he will not know, after [having had]  some knowledge.

 

2) Taa-Haa - Verse 40

 فَرَجَعْنَاكَ إِلَىٰ أُمِّكَ كَيْ تَقَرَّ عَيْنُهَا وَلَا تَحْزَنَ

Fa-raja-naa-ka ilaa um-mi-ka kai taqar-ra ai-nu-haa wa laatah-za-na

Meaning: So, We restored you (referring to Musa when he was a baby) to your mother so that she might be content and not grieve.

 

d) اِذَنْ izan (then): This is Particle is usually used as a reaction or response to a previous sentence.

 

Examples from al-Qur’an:

 

1) An-Nisaa - Verse 53

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

Um-la-hum nasee-bum min-al mul-ki fa izal laa yu-too-nannaa-sa na-qee-ra

Meaning: Or have they a share of dominion? Then [if that were so], they would not give the people [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

 

2) An-Nisaa - Verse 67

وَإِذًالَّآتَيْنَاهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Wa izal laa-tai-naa-hum mil-la-dun-naaj-ran azee-ma

And then We would have given them from Us a great reward.

 

e) ٰ  حَتّىٰ hat-ta (until):

This Particle has been used a few times in al-Qur’an. Some examples:

 

1) At-Tur - Verse 45

فَذَرْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ

Fa dhar-hum hat-ta yu-laa-qu yaw-mu-hum

So, leave them until they meet their Day

 

2) Az-Zoukhruf - Verse 83

فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا وَيَلْعَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ

Fa-dhar-hum ya-khoo-zoowa yal-aboo hat-ta yu-laa-qu yaw-mu-hum

So, leave them to converse vainly and amuse themselves until they meet their Day

 

3) An-Noor - Verse 27

لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّىٰتَسْتَأْنِسُوا

Laa tad-khu-loo bu-yoo-tan ghaira bu-yoo-ti-kum hat-ta tas-taa-ni-su

Do not enter houses other than your own houses until you ascertain welcome

 

f) لِ (for, so that): This Particle is used for providing an expected result of the action in the Verb. This is sometimes also called  الْكَيّلَامُ laa-mul kai. Some examples from al-Qur’an:

 

1) Al-Bayyina - Verse 5

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ

Wamaa ami-roo illaa li-ya-bu-dul laha

And they were not commanded except for worshipping Allah

 

2) At-Tawba - Verse 31

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدً

Wamaa ami-roo illaa li-ya-bu-du ilaa-han waa-hi-dan

And they were not commanded except for worshipping one God

 

 

 

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