8.2 to 8.6 - Negative/Present/Future/Emphasis/Passive Imperfect Tense

 


Section 8.2 – Negative in Imperfect Tense

 

To make a negative sentence in present or future, لَا la is used commonly. For example,

 

1) اَعْبُدُ aa’bu-dumeans I worship (inflection number 4). To make it negative we add a لَا laa in front and the sentence becomesلَا اَعْبُدُ which means I do not worship.

In surah al-kaafi-roon “مَا تَعْبُدُوْنَلَا اَعْبُدُ laa aa’bu-du maa taa’bu-doon meaning I do not worship what you worship.

 

2) يَهْدِيْ yah-dee means he guides (inflection number 1) and لَا يَهْدِيْ laa yah-dee means he does not guide.

In surah al-Saff, Allah says: وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِيَ الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ wal-lahu laa yah-di-yal qaw-maz-zaa-li-mee-na mean “and Allah does not guide the wrongdoers.

 

3) يَعْلَمُ Yaa-la-mu means he knows and لَا يَعْلَمُ laa yaa-la-mu means he does not know.

 

4) Al-Baqara - Verse 286 لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ laa yu-kal- liful-la-hu meaning Allah does not burden.

 

Sometimes مَا maa is also used as in مَا يَعْلَمُ maa yaa-la-mu which means he does not know or he will not know.

 

 

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Section 8.3 – فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ Imperfect Tense Specific to مَاضِيْ Present Tense

 

As you know by now, imperfect tense is used for present, present continuous or future tense. To make it specific to present only, Particle لَ (Laam-ut- takeed) is used in its front. For example:

1) يَنْصُرُ yan-su-ru means He helps or he will help. When Lam-ut- takeed is added, لَيَنْصُرُ la-yan-su-ru now means he helps or he is helping. In surah al-Hajj verse 40, Allah says وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ wa la-yan-su-run-nal-laa-hu mun yan-su-ru-hu meaning “Allah surely helps those who help Him (His cause)”. The emphasis here comes from the alphabet (نَّ) with shaddah on it. This will be covered later in this book.

2) يَكْتُبُ yak-tu-bu mean he writes or will write. لَيَكْتُبُ la-yak-tu-bu means he definitely writes and future is not part of it any more.

 

Section 8.4 – Imperfect Tense Specific to Future Tense

 

In Arabic two Particles are used for future when applied to Imperfect Tense فِعْلِ الْمُضَارِعِ:

 

1- (سَ sa) is used to express near future, as in أَذْهَبُ إِلَى الْعَمَلِ غَدًا adh-habu ilal ama-li gha-dan means “I go to work tomorrow or I will go to work tomorrow”. Now adding (سَ  sa) to أَذْهَبُ az-ha-bu, (سَأَذْهَبُ  sa-az-ha-bu) means “I will go, to work (الْعَمَلُ al-ama-lu) tomorrow (غَدًا gha-dan). So, if you want to indicate that something will happen in near future (mus-taq-bil qareeb) or after a short period and you're sure of it happening, then use (سَ sa).

 

2- (سَوْفَ saw-fa) as in سَوْفَ أُسافِرُ إِلٰى مِصَرَ saw-fa u-saa-fi-ruilaa mis-a-ra means I will travel to Egypt this summer. It is used to express something 1) that will happen after a long time (mustaqbil ba-'eed) and you are not sure that it will be done or you have a doubt or 2) it has already been done that it will definitely occur but after a long time.

 

Other examples:

 

1) تَعْلَمُوْنَ  ta-la-moona means you know or you will know. When سَوْفَ  saw-fa is added سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُوْنَ  saw-fa ta-la-moo-na, then meaning becomes “soon you will know”. سَوْفَ  saw-faa also adds the meaning of soon implying the future. Says SWT in Surah At-Takaathour - Verse 3 كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ kal-la saw-fa ta-la-moo-na meaning “definitely not (meaning of كَلَّا  kal-la) you will surely know”.

 

2) Now, تَعْلَمُوْنَ  ta-la-moona can also be futurized by adding alphabet س  seen with a fathah (َ) as in سَتَعْلَمُونَ  sa-ta-la-moo-nawhich also means soon you will know. Says SWT in Surah Al-Mulk, Verse 17 كَيْفَ نَذِيرِ  فَسَتَعْلَمُونَ  fa-sa-ta-la-moona kai-fa na-dh-eer which means “And you will come to know what my warning means”. Alphabet (فَ  fa) here is the additive Particle meaning “And”.

 

Section 8.5 - Emphasis in Imperfect Tense تَاكِيْدٌ فِيْ الْفِعْلِ الْمُضَارِعِ takeed fi fil-fei-il mu-daa-ri-yee

 

There are several ways of adding emphasis in imperfect tense. Two of the most used methods are by adding a نُوْنُ الْخَفِيْفَةِ noon-ulkha-fee-fati Light Noon or a نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ noon-uth tha-qee-lati Strong Noon. Light Noon has a Jaz-mun/Sukoon ْ on it and strong noon has a shaddah ّ on it. An emphasis lam-ut ta-keed لَامُ التَّاكيْدِ laam-ut takeedi which is (لَ  la) always used with these two noons.

 

A. Light Noon نُوْنُ الْخَفِيْفَةِ noon-ul kha-fee-fati

 

This noon is used for light emphasis. It is not used very much in al-Qur’an but is given here for completeness. There are only 8 inflections and these are given below:

 

Single:

 

 لَيَفْعَلَنْ         la yaf-al-an meaning he will surely do it

           لَتَفْعَلَنْ   la taf-al-an meaning she will surely do it

           لَتَفْعَلَنْla taf-al-an meaning You (male) will definitely do it

           لَتَفْعَلِنْla taf-al-in meaning You (female) will definitely do                             it

           لَأَفْعَلَنْla-af-alan 1st person single male/female meaning I                             will definitely do it

 

            Dual/Plural (1st person):

 

            لَنَفْعَلَنْ la-naf-al-an Dual/plural 1st person meaning We (males or females) will definitely do it

 

            Plural:

 

  لَيَفْعَلُنْ layaf-al-un 3rdperson Single male meaning They (males) will definitely do it

  لَتَفْعَلُنْla-taf-al-un 2nd person single male meaning You (males) will definitely do it

 

Examples:

 

1) لَئِن لَّمْ يَفْعَلْ مَا آمُرُهُ لَيُسْجَنَنَّ وَلَيَكُونًا مِّنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ

La-in lam yaf-al maa aa-ma-ru-hu la-yus-ja-nan-na wa laa yakoo-nan min-as-saghi-reen

12:32 Now, however, if he does not do what I bid him, he shall most certainly be imprisoned, and shall most certainly find himself among the despised!

 

2) كَلَّا لَئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ

Kal-laa la-il lum yan-tahi la-nas-fa-un bin-naa-si-ya-ti

96:15 Nay, if he desists not, We shall most surely drag him down upon his forehead 

 

 

B. Strong Noon نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ noon-uth-thaq-qeela-ti

 

This noon is used for strong emphasis. It is used extensively in al-Qur’an. Following are the 14 inflections using فَعَلَ fa-a-la die.

 

Table 49 فَعَلَ (fa-aa-la) Inflections with Strong Noon نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ noon-us sa-qee-lati

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

لَيَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-yaf-’alan-

na

6

لَيَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-yaf-’alaa-

ni

10

لَيَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-yaf-‘alun-

na

Female

2

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-’alan-

na

7

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-’alaan-

ni

11

لَيَفْعَلْنَانِّ

 

La-yaf-‘al-naan-

ni

Present

2nd person

Male

3

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-’alan-

na

8

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-’alaan-

ni

12

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-‘a-lun-

na

female

14

لَتَفْعَلِينَّ

 

La-taf-‘alee

-na

9

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-’alaan-

ni

13

لَتَفْعَلْنَانِّ

 

La-taf-‘al-naan-

ni

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

لَأَفْعَلُنَّ

 

 

La-af-’alan-na

5

لَنَفْعَلَنَّ

 

 

La-naf-’alan-na

 

 

Following Table gives the meaning of each of these as before:

 

Table 50 – Hidden pronouns in Imperfect Tense

 


 

Inflection number

Verb

Meaning

pronoun

hidden

in

the Verb

1

لَيَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La yaf-’alan-na

He most definitely does

or will do

هُوَ

 

Hu-a

He

2

لَتَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La taf-’ala-na

She most definitely does

or will do

هِيَ

 

Hee-ya

She

3

لَتَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La taf-’alan-na

You male most

definitely do or will do

اَنْتَ

 

an-ta

You male

4

لَأَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La taf-’ala-na

 

I male/female most definitely do or will do

اَنَا

 

anaa

I male/ female

5

لَنَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La-naf-’alan-na

We male/female/, dual/plural most

definitely do or will do

نَحْنُ

 

Nah-nu

We male/female, dual/plural

6

لَيَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-yaf-’alaan-ni

They both males most definitely do or will do

هُمَا

 

Hu-maa

They

both

males

7

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-’alaan-ni

They both females most

definitely do or will do

هُمَا

 

Hu-maa

They

both females

8

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-’alaan-ni

You both males most definitely do or will do

اَنْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa

You both male

9

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-’alaan-ni

You two females most definitely do or will do

اَنْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa

You both female

 

 

Examples of Noon-us Saqeela-ti نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ

 

1) ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيْمِ

Thum-ma la-tus-alun-na yaw-mai-zin anin naeem

102:8 and on that Day you will most surely be called to account for the blessings of life!

 

2) ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ

Thum-ma la-tara-wun-na-haa ay-nal yaqeen

102:7 In the end you will indeed, most surely, behold it with the eye of certainty

 

3) لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

La-tar-ka-bun-na tab-qan an taba-qi

84:19 [even thus, O men] are you bound to move; onward from stage to stage.

 

4) لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ

La-tara-wun-nal ja-heem

102:6 you would indeed, most surely, behold the blazing fire (of hell)!

 

5) وَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إِلاَّ وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

Wa-laa-tamu-tun-na illaa wa antum mus-li-moon

3:102 … and do not allow death to overtake you unless you have surrendered yourselves unto Him.

 

6) .. فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Fa-laa takoon-anna min-al mum-ta-reen

2:147 … Be not, then, among the doubters:

 

Section 8.6 – Passive Voice Imperfect Verb فِعْلُ المُضَارِعِِ الْمَجْهُوْلِ feil-ul-mudaa-re-il-majhool

 

As described before for the past tense, the same rules apply for the imperfect tense فِعْلُ المُضَارِعِ feil-ul mudaa-ri-ee:

 

1) An Active Verb (feil-ullaa-zim) always requires an Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-il to complete a sentence.

 

2) These actors can be explicit Nouns or their pronouns, or implicit in the Verb itself.

 

For example, in يَضَرِبُ زَيْدٌ yad-ri-bu Zai-dun meaning Zaid is hitting or will hit, زَيْدٌ is the Actor/Subject and is in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state. Or, in أَضَرِبُ ad-ri-bu meaning I am hitting or will hit, the pronoun I is hidden in أ. If only يَضَرِبُ yad-ri-bu is used, it means he is hitting or will hit and the pronoun he is hidden in the Verb  يَضَرِبُ yad-ri-bu.

 

3) In addition, some Verbs فِعْلُ اللَّاَزِمِ feil-ul laazim (intransitive) also require one or more objects مَفعُوْلٌ maf’ool. The Actor/Subject is always in a Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state and object is always in an Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state. That is the way to understand the meaning of an Arabic sentence by looking for state of the Nouns.

 

Similar to past tense, sometimes, in the imperfect tense, the Actor/Subject is not mentioned for a number of reasons and this Verb is called a فِعْلُ المُضَارِعِِ الْمَجْهُوْلِ feil-ulmudaa-ri-il majhool passive voice imperfect Verb. In the above example, we can say Hamid was hit. Here there is no Actor/Subject and it is considered to be mahzoof (skipped/not mentioned). We can say  زَيْدٌ حَامِدًا يَضْرِبُ  yad-ri-bu Zai-dun Hami-dan which means Zaid is hitting or will hit Hamid. Now, if we wanted to say Hamid was hit, we would say يُضْرَبُ حَامِدٌ yud-ra-bu Hami-dun. Note that يَضْرِبُ yad-ri-bu active Verb (fe'il ma-roof) became يُضَرَبُ yud-ra-bupassive Verb (fe'il maj-hool) and حَامِدٌ haa-mi-dun is still in nominative. Since Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-'un) state is given normally to the actor, and in a passive Verb, object is also given Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-'un) state, it is called نَائِبُ الفَاعِلِ naai-bul fa'eli (surrogate actor).

 

Note again that passive Verb only comes from intransitive Verb مُتَعَدِّيُ (mu-ta-'addi) since intransitive Verb requires a object مَفعُوْلٌ (maf’ool).  

 

For a past tense Active Verb (feilmaa-di ma’roof). it is easy to make a passive Verb (fe'il maa-di majhool).  This is done by changing the Verb from its active form (ma’roof) to a passive (majhool) die as in from فَعَلَ fa-'ala to فُعِلَ fu-'ila. Some examples follow:

 

Table 51 - Active مَعْرُوْفٌ (ma'-roof) to مَجهُوُلٌ (maj-hool) Passive Imperfect Tense  فِعْلُ المُضَارِعِِ

fe'il-ul mudaa-ri-'ee Examples

 

Active imperfect example meaning

Active imperfect example

Passive Imperfect example meaning

Passive imperfect

example

يَشَرِبَ الْوَلَدُ الْمَاءَ

Yash-ri-bul wala-dul- maa-a

The child is drinking or will drink water

يُشُرَبَ الْمَاءُ

 

Yush-ri-al maa-'u

Water is consumed or will be consumed

يَضَرِبُ زَيْدٌ حَامِدًا

 

Yad-ri-bu Zaidun haa-mi-dan

Zaid is hitting or will hit Hamid

يُضُرَبُ حَامِدٌ

 

Yud-ri-bu ha-mi-dun

Hamid is hit or will be hit.

لَا يَنصُرُوْنَهُمُ اللّٰهُ

 

Laa yan-sa-roo-na-hu-mul laha

Allah does not help them

لَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

 

Laa hu-mul yu-sa-roon

They will not be helped

ثُمَّ لَتَسْأُلُنَّ اللّٰهُ

 

Thum-ma la-tas-alun-nal la-hu

And Allah will most surely ask you

ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ

 

Thum-ma la-tus-alun-na

Then most surely you will be asked

فَافْعَلُوا مَا يَامُروْنَ اللّٰهُ

 

Faf-aloo maa yamu-roo-nal lahu

So, do as Allah commands

فَافْعَلُوا مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ

 

Faf-aloo maa tu-ma-roona

So, do what you are commanded

تَحْشَرُونَ اللهُ اِلَيْهِمْ

 

Tah-sha-roo-nal lahu ilia-him

Allah will gather you unto Him

لَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُحْشَرُونَ

 

La-ilal-lahi tuh-sha-roon

Unto Allah you will be gathered.

 

 

 

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