9/10.1/10.2/10.3/10.4 - Incomplete Verbs/Kana wa akhawatuha/Kana-Yakoonu/Laisa Inflections

 


Section 10.1 –Incomplete Verbs
أَفْعَالُ النَّاقِصَةِ af-aal-un naaqi-sa-ti

 

Incomplete Verbs الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْقِصَةُ al-af-aal-un naaqi-sa-tu or الأَفْعَاْلُ النَّاْسِخَةُ Al-af-aal-un naasi-qa-tu meaning canceling Verbs are Verbs which give incomplete meaning unless both Actor/Subject Noun فَاعِلٌ fa-i-lun and object Noun مَفْعُوْلٌ maf-oo-lun are specified. This is the reason these are called incomplete Verbs أَفْعَالُ النَّاقِصَةِ. For incomplete Verbs, the Actor/Subject is called Noun of Kana اِسْمُ الْكَانَ is-mul kaana and its object is called the predicate اَلْخَبَرُ al-kha-bar.

 

The most commonly used incomplete Verb is كَانَ kana which is past tense meaning “was”. It also means existed which if used makes it a complete كَانَ.

 

1) For example, if we were to say كَانَ الْولَدُ, with Noun (in Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un state) only, this would mean “the boy was”. It does not complete the sentence. It requires a predicate اَلْخَبَرُ al-kha-bar. Therefore, this sentence would be complete if we added one in Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state as in كَانَ الْولَدُ سَعِيدًا kaa-nal wala-du sayee-dan which means the boy was happy.

 

2) If in كَانَ الْولَدُ kaan-al wala-du, meaning of كَانَ is taken as “existed”, then the sentence means “the boy existed” which is now a complete sentence. Therefore, depending upon the context of the sentence and/or presence of an Accusative نَصْبٌ (nasb-un) Noun can mean كَانَ kaa-nais a complete Verb. Otherwise, it will be treated as an incomplete Verb.

 

Another example would be كَانَ زَيْدٌ قَائمًا kaa-na Zai-dun qai-man meaning “Zaid was standing”. Its Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un is called a Noun of كَانَ kaa-na and its Accusative مَنْصُوْبٌ man-soo-bun is a Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ al-kha-ba-ru of كَانَ kaa-na.

 

Another way to look at it is that, these Verbs enter in a Nominative Sentence اِسْمِيَّةٌ جُمْلَةٌ jum-la-tul is-miyya-tun and give the Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un status to مُسْنَدٌإِلَيْهِ mus-na-dun ilaihi that is اَلْمُبْتَدَاءُ al-mub-ta-dau and it is called a Noun of Incomplete Verb, and an Accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun to اَلْمُسْنَدُ al-mus-na-du which is its Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ.

 

Please note that, as mentioned before, for all rules in Arabic, there are always exceptions. This is because the language evolved first and then rules were deduced from it later.

 

Therefore, sometimes Verbs in this category are complete depending upon the meaning of Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ with its Noun of Kana اِسْمُ الْكَانَ ism-ul kaa-na.  For example, كَانَ مَطْرٌ kaa-na mat-run means “there was rain”. And when this happens, كَانَ isfor the meaning of “happened”. It is called complete كَانَ. This is an exception.

 

Note that, the Noun of Kana اِسْمُ الْكَانَ is always in nominative رَفْعٌ raf-'un state and is called the subject Noun. Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ is always in accusative state نَصْبٌ. This is true for all incomplete Verbs and their sisters which are described below.

 

Section 10.2 - Kana and its sisters كَانَ وَأَخْوَاتُهَا

 

There are incomplete Verbs other than كَانَ, and they are called its sisters. There are seventeen types of Incomplete Verbs أَفْعَالُ النَّاقِصَةِ as shown below

 

Table 64 – Incomplete Verbs أَفْعَالُ النَّا قِصَةِ af-aal-un naaqi-sa-ti

 

1

كَانَ

Kaa-na

He was

 2

صَارَ

Saa-ra

To become

3

ظَلَّ

Zal-la

To be or to become in the day time

4

بَاتَ

Baa-ta

To be or to become in the night time

5

أَصْبَحَ

As-ba-ha

To be or to become in the morning time

6

أَضْحَىٰ

Ad-haa

To be or to become at mid morning

7

أَمْسَىٰ

Am-saa

To be or to become in the evening

8

عَادَ

Aa-da

Return

9

آضَ

Aa-da

Happened

10

غَدَا

Gha-daa

To be or Tomorrow

11

رَاحَ

Raa-ha

To go or to go in the evening

12

مَا زَالَ

Maa zaa-la

To keep on, not to cease, to continue

13

مَا انْفَكَّ

Maa an-fak-ka

To keep on or to not discontinue

14

مَا بَرِحَ

Maa bari-ha

To continue

15

مَا فَتِئَ

Maa fa-ti-ya

Always, continuously

16

مَادَامَ

Ma-daa-ma

To continue, as long as

17

لَيْسَ

Lai-sa

No, not

 

Out of all the above imperfect Verbs, كَان kana and لَيْسَ laisa are most commonly used and we will be covering them in a bit more detail.

 

Note that same inflections and rules apply for other incomplete Verbs as for normal Verbs. Some of them will have inflections and some do not. This is a more advanced topic and you will learn by reading higher level books and by studying al-Qur’an in-sha-Allah.

 

In Arabic, there are incomplete Verbs that can be managed to make them complete. There are two Verbs in Arabic that are strictly incomplete. They always need a predicate الْخبَرُ al-kha-ba-ru along with its Noun اِسْمٌ is-mun to complete a sentence.

 

There are several Verbs in Arabic that can be both complete and incomplete Verbs. There are also others that can only be incomplete but not complete.

 

An example of a Verb that can be only an incomplete Verb is مَاْ زَاْلَ (maa-za-la) meaning not left or be/remain. For example:

 

 مَاْ زَاْلَ الْوَلَدُ سَعِيْدًا

                       

 (Sayeed) (the boy) (remained)

 

This translates into “the boy remained happy” or “the boy is still happy”.

 

The past tense Verb Zaala زَالَ (imperfect ya-zaa-lu يَزَاْلُ) is never used except combined with a negative Particle; usually it is مَاmaa so it will become مَا زَالَ maa-zaa-la. This Verb means "be still" or "remain". It is an incomplete Verb that is never used without a predicate. In the above example, مَاْ زَاْلَ الْوَلَدُ maa zaa-lalwala-du means “the boy is” which is incomplete.

 

There are two Verbs in Arabic that are strictly incomplete (they always needan Adverb):

 

مَاْ زَاْلَ

Maa-za-la

 (He) is still

لَيْسَ

Lai-sa

 (He) is not

 

Examples of predicates for Imperfect Verbs:

 

Example 1

 

أَصْبَحَ

الثَّلْجُ

مَاْءً

asbaha

ath-thalju

maa-an

entered the morning

the ice

water

 

 

This means ice became water/ice has become water.

 

Example 2

 

سَيُصْبِحُ

الثَّلْجُ

مَاْءً

sa-yus-bi-hu

ath-thal-ju

maa-an

Will enter the morning

became ice

the water

This means ice will become water.

 

Example 3

 

أَمْسَىْ

خَطِيْرًا

الْوَضْعُ

amsaa

kha-tee-ran

al-wad-u

became in the evening

dangerous

the situation

 

This means the situation became dangerous or has become dangerous. 

 

Example 4 

 

هُنَاْكَ

 

مَاْ دَاْمَ

أَذْهَبَ لَنْ

hu-naa-ka

maa-daa-ma

lan az-ha-ba

he is there

as long as

I will not go

 

This means I will not go as long as he is there.

 

Example 5

 

بِحَاْجَتِيْ

مَاْ دُمْتَ

سَأُسَاْعُدُكَ

bi-haa-jati

maa dumta

sa-usaa-udu-ka

you need me

as long as

I will help you

                                     

This means I will help you as long as you need me.

 

 

Section 10.3 - كَانَ/يَكُوْنُ Kana/Yakoo-nu Inflections

 

Like other Verbs, kana also has its own inflections which are used to match its gender, speaker/present/absent and single/dual/plural state of its Noun.

 

Following is the table of inflection of كَان kana which is the past tense:

 

Table 65 - كَان Kana inflections

 

 

 

single

dual

 

plural

 

 

 

 

Absent

3rd person

 

Male

كَانَ

 

Kaa-na

 

(He)

Was

 

 

كَانَا

 

Kaa-naa

 

Those

(Two

males)

were

 

كَانُوْا

 

Kaa-noo

 

They

(All

males)

were

 

Female

 

كَانتْ

 

Kaa-nat

 

(She)

was

 

كَانتَا

 

Kaa-nata

 

Those

(Two

females) were

 

كُنَّ

 

Kun-na

 

 

They

(All

females)

were

 

 

Present

2nd person

 

Male

كُنَتَ

 

Kun-ta

 

you

(male)

were

 

كُنَتُمَا

 

Kun-tu-maa

 

You

(Two

males)

were

 

 

كُنْتُمْ

 

Kun-tum

 

 

You

(All

males)

were

 

female

كُنْتِ

 

Kun-ti

 

You

(female)

were

كُنْتُمَا

 

Kun-tu-maa

 

You

(Two

females) were

 

كُنْتُنّ

 

Kun-tun-na

 

You

(All

females)

were

 

Speaker

1st person

 

Male/female

كُنْتُ

 

Kun-tu

 

I was

 

كُنَّا

Kun-naa

 

We (male/female/dual/ plural) were

 

 

Examples of كَان kaa-na for each of these inflections using وَلَدٌ wala-dun and بِنتٌ bin-tun as Nouns of kana for male and female are given below:

 

1) كَانَ وَلدٌ سَعِيدًا

Kaa-na wala-dun sa'ee-dan

He was a happy boy

 

2) كَانَا وَلَدَانِ سَعِيْدَانِ

Kaa-na wala-daa-ni say'ee-daani

They were two happy boys

 

3) سَعِيْدِيْنَ كَانُوْا اَوْلَادٌ

Kaa-nu aw-laa-dun Sa'ee-deena

They all were happy boys

 

4) سَعِيْدَةً كَانَتْ بِنْتٌ

Kaa-nat bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

She was a happy girl

 

5) سَعِيْدَتَانِ كَانَتَا بِنْتَانِ

Kaa-na-taa bin-taa-ni sa'eeda-ta-ni

They were two happy girls

 

6) سُعْدَاءً بَنَاتٌ كُنَّ 

Kun-na bana-tun s'u-daa-an

They were all happy girls

 

7) سَعِيْدًا كُنْتَ وَلَدٌ

Kun-ta-wala-dun sa'ee-dan

You were a happy boy

 

8) سَعِيْدَانِ كُنْتُمَا وَلَدَانِ

Kun-tuma wala-daa-ni sa'ee-daa-ni

You two were happy boys

 

9) سَعِيْدِيْنَ كُنْتُمْ اَوْلَادٌ

Kun-tum aw-laa-dun sa'ee-dee-na

You all were happy boys

 

10) سَعِيْدَةً كُنْتِ بِنتٌ

Kun-ti bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

You were a happy girl

 

11) سَعِيْدَتَانِ كُنْتُمَا بِنْتَانِ

Kun-tumaa bin-taa-ni sa'ee-da-ta-ni

You two were happy girls

 

12) سُعْدَاءً كُنْتُمْ بَنَاتٌ

Kun-tum banaa-tun su'-daa-an

You all were happy girls

 

13) سَعِيْدَةً كُنتُ وَلَدٌ سَعِيْدًا/ ، كُنْتُ بِنْتٌ

Kun-tu wala-dun sa'ee-dan/ kun-tu bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

I was a happy boy, I was a happy girl

 

14) سُعْدَاءًكُنَّا اَوْلَادٌ  سَعِيْدِيْنَ    / بَنَاتٌ  كُنَّا  

Kun-naa aw-laa-dun sa'ee-dee-na/ kun-naa banaa-tun su'-daa-an

We Two or all were happy boys

We Two or all were happy girls,

We were all happy boys

We were all happy girls

 

Imperfect tense فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ fei-ul mudaa-ri-'yi is given in the table below. Here, the form يَكُوْنُ Ya-koo-nu does not actually mean "is, " rather it means "will be."

 

Table 66 - يَكُوُنُ Yakunu inflections

 

 

 

Gender

 

 

Single

 

dual

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

يَكُوُنُ

Yakoo-nu

 (He)

Is/will be

 

يَكُوْنَانِ

Yakoo-naa-ni

 (Those

 Two

 males)

 are or will be

 

يَكُوْنُوْنَ

Yakoo-noo-na

They

 (All males)

 are or will be

 

Female

تَكُوُنُ

Ta-koo-nu

 (She)

Is/will be

 

تَكُوْنَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni

Those

 (Two

 females) are or will be

يَكُنَّ

Ya-kun-na

They

 (All

females)

 are or will be

Present

2nd person

Male

تَكُوُنُ

Takoo-nu

you

 (male)

 are or will be or will be

تَكُوْنَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni

You

 (Two

 males)

 are or will be

تَكُوْنُوْنَ

Takoo-noo-na

You

 (All

males)

 are or will be

female

تَكُوْنِيْن

Takoo-nee-na

 

You

 (female)

 are or will be

تَكُوْنَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni

You

 (Two

 females) are or will be

تَكُنَّ

Takun-na

You

 (All

females)

are or will be

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

اَكُوُنُ

Akoo-nu

 (I) am or will be

نَكُوْنُ

Nakoo-nu

we (males, females, duals,

 plurals) are or will be)

 

 

Examples of يَكُوُنُ yakoo-nou for each of these using وَلَدٌ wala-dun and بِنتٌ bin-tun as Nouns of kana for male and female are given below:

 1) يَكُوْنُ وَلدٌ سَعِيدًا

Ya-koo-nu wala-dun sa'ee-dan

He is a happy boy

 

2) يَكُوْنَانِ وَلَدَانِ سَعِيْدَانِ

Yakoo-naa-ni wala-daa-ni sa'ee-daani

They are two happy boys

 

3) سَعِيْدِيْنَ يَكُوْنُوْنَ اَوْلَادٌ

Yakoo-noo-na aw-laa-dun Sa'ee-deena

They all are happy boys

 

4) سَعِيْدَةً بِنْتٌتَكُوُنُ  

Takoo-nu bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

She is a happy girl

 

5) سَعِيْدَتَانِ تَكُوْنَانِ بِنْتَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni bin-taa-ni sa'eeda-ta-ni

They are two happy girls

 

6) سُعْدَاءً يَكُنَّ بَنَاتٌ

Ya-kun-na bana-tun su'-daa-an

They are all happy girls

 

7)  تَكُوْنُ وَلَدُ سَعِيْدًا     

Ta-koo-nu wala-dun sa'ee-dan

You are a happy boy

 

8) سَعِيْدَانِ تَكُوْنَانِ وَلَدَانِ

Ta-koo-naa-ni wala-daa-ni sa'ee-daa-ni

You two are happy boys

 

9) سَعِيْدِيْنَ وْلَادٌاَتَكُوْنُوْنَ 

Takoo-noo-na awlaa-dun sa'ee-dee-na

You all are happy boys

 

10) سَعِيْدَةً تَكُوْنُ بِنتٌ

Ta-koo-nu bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

You are a happy girl

 

11) سَعِيْدَتَانِ تَكُوْنَانِ بِنْتَانِ

Takoo-naa-ni bin-taa-ni sa'ee-da-ta-ni

You two are happy girls

 

12) سُعْدَاءً تَكُنَّ بَنَاتٌ

Ta-kun-na banaa-tun su'-daa-an

You all are happy girls

 

13) سَعِيْدَةً وَلَدٌ    اَكُوْنُ سَعِيْدًا/    اَكُوْنُ بِنْتٌ

Akoo-nu wala-dun sa'ee-dan, kun-tu bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

I am a happy boy, I am a happy girl

 

14) سُعْدَاءً نَكُوْنُ اَوْلَادٌ سَعِيْدِيْنَ  /  نَكُوْنُ بَنَاتٌ 

Na-koo-nu aw-laa-dun sayee-dee-na/ kun-naa banaa-tun su'-daa-an

We Two or all are happy boys

We Two or all are happy girls

We are all happy boys

We are all happy girls

 

 

10.4 - Laisa لَيْسَ inflections

 

لَيْسَ Laisa does not have an imperfect mu-daa-ri-'un مُضَارِعٌ version. It does have past tense مَاضيْ maa-di inflections shown below.

 

Table 67لَيْسَ lai-sa Inflections

 

 

 

single

dual

plural

 

 

 

 

Absent

3rd person

 

Male

 

لَيْسَ

Lai-sa

 (He)

was not

 

 

لَيْسَا

Lai-saa

Those

 (Two

 males)

 were not

 

 

لَيْسُوْا

Lai-soo

They

 (All

 males)

 were not

 

 

 

Female

 

لَيْسَتْ

Lai-sat

 (She)

was not

 

 

لَيْسَتَ

Lai-sa-ta

Those

 (Two

 females)

 were

 not

 

لَسْنَ

Las-na

They

 (All

 females)

 were not

 

 

 

Present

2nd person

 

Male

 

لَسْتَ

Las-ta

you

 (male)

 were not

 

 

لَسْتُمَا

Las-tu-maa

You

 (Two

 males)

 were not

 

لَسْتُمْ

Las-tum

You

 (All

 males)

 were not

 

 

female

 

لَسْتِ

Las-ti

You

 (female)

 were not

 

 

لَسْتُمَ

Las-tum

You

 (Two

 females) 

were

 not 

 

لَسْتُنَّ

Las-tun-na

You

 (All

 females)

 were not

 

Speaker

1st person

 

Male/female

 

لَسْتُ

Las-tu

 (I)

was not

 

 

لَسْنَا

Las-naa

we (males,

Females,

Duals, Plurals)

were not

 

 

 

Examples for each of these using وَلَدٌ and بِنتٌ as Nouns of kana for male and female are given below:

 

1) لَيْسَ وَلدٌ سَعِيدًا

Lai-sa wala-dun sa'ee-dan

He was not a happy boy

 

2) لَيْسَا وَلَدَانِ سَعِيْدَانِ

Lai-saa wala-daa-ni sa'ee-daani

They were not two happy boys

 

3) سَعِيْدِيْنَ لَيْسُوا اَوْلَادٌ

Lai-su aw-laa-dun Sa'ee-deena

They all were not happy boys

 

4) سَعِيْدَةً لَيْسَتْ بِنْتٌ

Lai-sat bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

She was not a happy girl

 

5) سَعِيْدَتَانِ لَيْسَتَا بِنْتَانِ

Lai-sa-taa bin-taa-ni sa'eeda-ta-ni

They were two not happy girls

 

6) سُعْدَاءً بَنَاتٌلَسْنَ 

Las-na bana-tun su'-daa-an

They were all not happy girls

 

7) سَعِيْدًا لَسْتَ وَلَدٌ

Las-ta-wala-dun sa'ee-dan

You were not a happy boy

 

8) سَعِيْدَانِ لَسْتُمَا وَلَدَانِ

Las-tu-maa wala-daa-ni sa'ee-daa-ni

You two were happy boys

 

9) سَعِيْدِيْنَ لَسْتُمْ اَوْلَادٌ

Las-tum aw-laa-dun sa'yee-dee-na

You all were not happy boys

 

10) سَعِيْدَةً لَسْتِ بِنتٌ

Las-ti bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

You were not a happy girl

 

11) سَعِيْدَتَانِ لَسْتُمَا بِنْتَانِ

Las-tu-maa bin-taa-ni sa'ee-da-ta-ni

You two were not happy girls

 

12) سُعْدَاءً لَسْتُمْ بَنَاتٌ

Las-tum banaa-tun su'-daa-an

You all were not happy girls

 

13) سَعِيْدَةً لَسْتُ وَلَدٌ سَعِيْدًا  /   لَسْتُ بِنْتٌ

Las-tu wala-dun sa'ee-dan, kun-tu bin-tun sa'ee-da-tan

I was  not a happy boy/ I was not a happy girl

 

14) سُعْدَاءً  , لَسْنَا اَوْلَادٌ سَعِيْدِيْنَ لَسْنَا بَنَاتٌ

Las-naa aw-laa-dun sa'ee-dee-na, Las-naa banaa-tun su'-daa-an

We Two or all were not happy boys

We Two or all were not happy girls,

We were all not happy  boys

We were all not happy  girls

 

 

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