93/ Short Nahw Summary


Nahw Summary

All praise is for Allah SWT the Lord and Sustainer of the Worlds and peace and blessings on the leader of all messengers Mohammed and his ummah and all of his companions. Allah Ta’ala has guided us and may He guide you fully.


Arabic words are made up of words with meaning in two ways:  


1) Singular

2) Compound


A Compound is a sentence or speech: These are generally divided into four categories:


1) Possessive Compound اَلْمُرَكّبُ الْإِضَافِيْ,

2) Descriptive Compound اَلْمُرَكّبُ التَّوْصِيْفِيْ

3) Merged Compound اَلْمُرَكَّبُ الْإِمْتِزَاجِيْ.

4) Structural Compound اَلْمُرَكَّبُ الْبِنَائيْ


A single word is called كَلِمَةٌ or speech. Single words can only be one of the three:


1) Noun اِسْمٌ

2) Verb فِعْلٌ

3) Particle حَرْفٌ


A Noun is either flexible or Inflexible مُعْرَبٌ وَ مَبْنِيٌّ


Nominative رَفْعٌ is:     

1) Actor فَاعِلٌ

2) Object مَفْعُوْلٌ which has not been named an actor as in passive voice verb نَائبُ الْفَاعِلُ (Surrogate Actor)

3) Nominal Subject or Beginning مُبْتَدَأٌ

4) The predicate of Nominal Subject خَبَرٌ

5) The predicate of إِنَّ and its sisters خَبَرُ إِنَّ وَ أَخْوَاتُهَا

6) The noun of كَانَ and its sisters كَانَ وَ أَخْوَاتُهَا

7) The predicate for لَا which is for the elimination of all kinds الْجِنْسِ لِنَفْيُ لَا خَبَرُ

8) Noun for مَا and لَا with meaning/use of لَيْسَ



Accusative نَصْبٌ is:


1) اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ الْمُطْلَقُ Cognate Accusative - The Absolute Object

2) اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖ Object of a Verb

3) اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ فِيْهِ Adverb of Time or Place.

4) اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ لَهٗ Adverb of Purpose

5) اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ مَعْهٗ Comitative Object

6) اَلْحَالُ Circumstantial Accusative 

7) اَلتَّمْيِيْزُ An Accusative of Clarification

8) اَلْمُسْتَثْنٰى Exceptive

9) The noun of إِنَّ and its sisters اِسْمُ إِنَّ وَ أَخْوَاتُهَا

10) The predicate of كَانَ and its sisters كَانَ وَ إِخْوَاتُهَا خَبَرُ

11) The noun of لِنَفْيُ الْجِنْسِ لَا

12) The predicate for مَا and لَا with meaning/use of لَيْسَ


Genitive جَرٌّ is:


1) From “Possessed part of the Possessive Compound” مُضَافٌand 2) By the addition of Genitive Particles and its mention will be given below, In-sha-Allah.


And Dependencies come from all Nominative رَفْعٌ Accusative نَصْبٌ and Genitive جَرٌّ. The flexibility of dependent (تَابِعٌ) will be the same as that for the independent (مَتْبُوْعٌ). These are five:


   1) اَلنَّعْتُ The adjective

   2) اَلتَّاكِيْدُ The emphasis

   3) اَلْمَعْطُوْفُ بِحَرْفِ الْعَطْفِ The additive by a Particle


   And later you will be introduced to:


   4) اَلْبَدَلُ The Substitute

   5) عَطْفُ الْبَيَانِ Additive of Declaration


Non-Flexible Nouns مَبْنِيٌّ:


1)   Pronouns اَلضَّمَائرُ also called اَلْمُضْمَرَاتُ.

2)   Demonstrative Nouns اَلْأَسْمَاءُ الْإِشَارَةُ

3)   Relative Pronouns اَلْأَسمَاءُالْمَوْصُوْلَةُ: These are of two kinds and are called اَلْمُبْهَمَاتُloosely translated as “vague”.

4)   Hidden Demonstrative Pronoun اَلْأَسْمَاءُ الْكِنَايَةِ

5)   Actor Nouns أَسمَاءُالْأَفْعَالِ

6)   Nouns of sound أَسمَاءُالْأَصْوَاتِ

7)   Some Adverbs ظُرُوْفٌ

Basis of Nouns


There are two kinds: The Derivative مُشْتَقٌّ and Rigid جَامِدٌ.


1) The Derivative اَلْمُشْتَقُّ: This is derived from the Verb. Some examples are:


             Actor Noun اِسْمُ الْفَاعِلِ

             – Object Noun اِسْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ

             – Resembling Adjective اَلصِّفَةُ الْمُشَبَّهْةُٓ

              –Superlative Noun اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْلِ

             – Noun for Time اِسْمُ الزَّمَانِ

             – Noun for Place اِسْمُ الْمَكَانِ

             – Machine Noun اِسْمُ الْاٰلَةِ: It is a Noun from which the source of the Verb is determined and it is mostly through transitive Verbs and is only the three-letter root word as in مِبْرَدٌ from مِفعَلٌmeaning “sand”, مِطْرَقَةٌ from مِفْعَلَةٌ meaning “hammer” and مِفْتَاحٌfrom مِفْعَالٌ meaning a “key”.


2) The Rigid/Fixed اَلْجَامِدُ


This is other than the Derivatives اَلْمُشْتَقُّand the Verbal Sources اَلْمَصْدَرُ. This generally does not have a source.




-   فِعْلُ الْمَاضِيُ Past tense

-   فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ Imperfect Tense (present and future tenses)

-   اَلْأَمْرُ بِلَا لَامٍ Imperative without a letter (ل)

-   اَلْأَمْرُ بِهَا لَامٌ Imperative with letter ل))

-   نَهْيٌ Negative Imperative

And the following three are Non-Flexible مَبْنِيٌّ:


1) Past tense مَاضِيْ

2) اَلْأَمْرُ بِلَا لَامٍ Imperative without letter ل as in اَنْصُرْ

3) اَلْأَمْرُبِهَا لَامٌ Imperative with letter ل as in لِيَنْصُرْ


All others are flexible مُعْرَبٌ.


-   اَلْمُضَارِعُ is given Nominative رَفْعٌwhen it is not Accusative نَصْبٌ and Jussive جَزَمٌ, made Accusative نَصْبٌ with an active accusative Particleنَاصِبٌ  حَرْفٌ, and Jussive for a جَازِمٌ. Later نَاصِبٌ and جَازِمٌ will be mentioned in the discussion of Particles حُرُوْفٌ.

-   As for اَلْأَمْرُ بِالْلَامٍ and نَهْيٌ, both are always Jussive جَزَمٌ.

-   The Verb is Intransitive or Transitive. An Intransitive Verb does not demand an Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖ as in, جَاءَ وَقْتُ الصَّلَاةِmeaning the “time of prayer came” and transitive demands it and is of three types:


- Transitive towards a single اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖor Object as in ضَرَبَmeaning “he hit” requires who was hit

- Transitive towards two Objects. For example, عَلِمَ meaning “to know” requires who knew and what, as in عَلِمْتُ زَيْدًا فَاضِلًا meaning “I came to know that Zaid is learned” and أَعْطَىٰ meaning “he gave” requires what and to whom.

- Transitive towards three Objects. For example, أَعْلَمَ meaning “to inform” requires who informed, who he informed, and about what.


Particles حُرُوْفٌ


In these there are active Particles عَامِلَةٌ حُرُوْفٌ and inactive Particles حُرُوْفٌ غَيْرُ الْعَامِلَةِ


Active Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ


-   Active Particles are seventeen:


1 (ب) اَلْبَاءُ . 2(ت) اَلتَّاءُ. 3 (ك) اَلْكَافُ. (ل) اَللَّامُ.5 (و). اَلْوَاوُ 6 مُذْ. .. 7.  مُنْذُ. 8.  خَلَا.9.  عَدَا. 10.  رُبَّ., 11.  حَاشَا. 12.  مِنْ. 13. عَنْ. 14.  عَلٰى. 15.حَتّٰى 16.  فِيْ. 17. اِلٰى


-   Particles that give Accusative نَصْبٌ to imperfect tense فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ and these are four:


1. أَنْ. 2. لَنْ. 3. كَىْ. 4. إِذَنْ.


-   Particles that give Jussive جَزَمٌ to Imperfect Tense فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِand these are five:


1. إِنْ . 2.لَمْ 3.لَمَّا 4. الْأَمْرِ لَامُ (ل) 5. النَّهْيِ لَاءُ (لَا)


-   Particles Resembling a Verb اَلْحُرُوْفُ الْمُشَبَّهَةُ بِالْفِعْلِthat give Accusative نَصْبٌto Nouns and the Nominative رَفْعٌ to the Predicates اَلْخَبَرُ and these are six in number:


1. إِنَّ. 2. أَنَّ. 3. كَأنَّ. 4. لٰكِنَّ. 5 لَيْتَ. . 6 لَعَلَّ. .


- Particles of Call حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءُ are those that give Accusative نَصْبٌ to اَلْمُنَادٰى, اَلْمُضَافُ, مُشَبَّهةُ  (بِالْمُضَافِ), and five Indeterminate non-Flexible Nouns يَا, أَيَا, هَيَا, أَيْ, اَلْهَمْزَةُ.

 - And (اَلنَّافِيَةُ لِلْجنْسِ) لَا, مَا, and لَا with the meaning of لَيْسَ give Accusative نَصْبٌ to Noun.


Non-Active Particles


- Particles of Conjunction حُرُوْفُ الْعَاطِفَةِand these are ten: اَلْوَاوُ, اَلْفَاءُ, ثُمَّ , حَتّٰى, أَوْ , إمَّا, أَمْ, لَا, بَلْ, لٰكِنَّ.


- Particles of Caution حُرُوْفُ التَّنْبِيْهِand these are three: اَلَا, أَمَّا, هَا.


- Particles of Answer حُرُوْفُ الْإِيْجَابِand these are six: نَعَمْ, بَلَىٰ, أَجَلْ, إِيْ, جَيْرِ, إِنَّ.


- Particles of Explanation حُرُوْفُ التَّفْسِيْرِand these are two: أَيْ and أَنْ


- Particles of Promotion حُرُوْفُ التَّحْضِيْضِand these are four: اَلَّا, هَلَّا, لَوْلَا, لَوْمَا. A Verb is required after these particles.


- Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِ and it is: قَدْ.


- Particles of Interrogation حُرُوْفُ الْاِسْتِفْهَامِand these are three: مَا, اَلْهَمْزَةُ and, هَلْ.


- The particle of Deterrent/Scolding حُرُوْفُ الرِّدَعِ and these are كَلَّا (definitely not) and it comes from the meaning of حَقًا (that is the way it will be) and similar to that are Actor Nouns مَا, أَنْ, لَوْ, أَمَّا, for conditional Noun شَرْطٌ.

- اَلتَّاءُ التّاْنِيْثُ (ة) also called اَلتَّاءُالْمُتَحَرِّكَةُ or round (ة) is requiredat the end of a Noun and long (ت)also called اَلتَّاءُالسَّاكِنَةُ is required at the end of past tense for the feminine gender.


- Nunation تَنْوَيْنٌ is the letter (ن) السَّاكِنَةُ نُوْنُ and it follows the last vowel and it is not for emphasis.


- Letter (ن) of emphasis is either lightened with a single harakah or it is a مُشَدَّدَةٌ اَلِفٌ (اّ) and is applied to Verbs only and it enters at the end of Imperative Verb اَلْأَمْرُ, Negative Imperative Verb اَلنَّهِىُّ Interrogative Pronoun اَلْاِسْتِفْهَامُ, اَلتَّمَنِّيْ Desire اَلْعَرْضُ Request اَلْقَسَمُ Oath and rarely for negative اَلنَّفْيُ.