Sarf and Nahw Summary: 3.0 - Other Conjunction/Resumption particles

 


 3.0 - O
ther Conjunction/Resumption particles

 

1.     - ثُمَّ Particle of conjunction (حَرْف تَرَاخِيْ/ بُعْد/عَطْف) meaning “Then, after that”.

 

تَرَاخِيْ: slacken, loose

بُعْد: following, after

عَطْف: Additive

 

If there is a break or time-out between the action and reaction, you use the particle (ثُمَّ). For example, ثُمَّ قَالَ Then (after a break), he said.

 

2.     - لٰكِنْ حَرْف عَطْف meaning “But”.

 

3.     Both (لٰكِنْ) and (لٰكِنَّ) are used as particles for amendment/retraction. Laakin (لٰكِنْ) is a conjunctive particle, (لٰكِنَّ) laakinna is a verb like a particle. These are active particles that act on nouns just like a verb. Retraction (إسْتِدْرَاك) is a subset of laakinna and means Particle of Amendment/ retraction. Like “but/why not” etc.

 

أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ

Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive [it] not

 

4.     - اَنّٰى حَرْف عَطْف in the meaning of “how, what, where” such as “كَيْفْ/أيْنَ

 

For example, Surah أل-Fajr ayah23:

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَذَكَّرُ الْإِنسَانُ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُ الذِّكْرَىٰ

On that day shall man understand, but what will understanding avail him then?

 

5.      أمْ/أوْ- حَرْف عَطْف تَخْيِيْر Particle of choice, the meaning of “or” comes from word إخْتِيَار.

 

Al-Mulk Ayah 17 (أَمْ example):

 

أَمْ أَمِنتُم مَّن فِي السَّمَاءِ أَن يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبً

Or do you feel secure that He who [holds authority] in the heaven would not send against you a storm of stones?

 

Surah Al-An’aam Ayah 47 (أَوْ example):

 

إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ بَغْتَةً أَوْجَهْرَةً

if the punishment of Allah should come to you unexpectedly or manifestly

 

6.     اِذْ- Adverb of place/time (حَرْف ظَرْفيَة), “then”

This gives the meaning of past tense (مَاضِيْ)

 

7.     اِذَا- Condition (حَرْف شَرَطيَة), meaning “If”.

Condition particle:when it enters the perfect verb, then it changes it to future meaning.

 

8.     أمّا/الآ- Particle of scolding (حُرُوْف تَنْبِيِه).  الآ  is used for “caution/careful”, أمّا can be used as Additive or for emphasis “ but, as far as, verily

 

9.     كَلَّا - Particle of Deterrent (حَرْف رَدَع) meaning “definitely not, Nay”. A word for deterrence, rebuke, and denunciation

 

10.  إمّا - Particle of categorization (Bringing out details) (حَرْف تَفْصِيْلِيَة) For example:

 

إِمَّا شَاكِرٌ وَإِمَّاكَفُوْرة

Whether to be grateful or disbelieving-

(Whether, either, or)

 

11.  أيْ - Particle of explanation (حَرْف تَفْسِيْر) meaning “that is”. Commentary/bringing out the detail.

 

12. بَلْ - Particle of Change (حَرْف إضْرَاب), yet, Used for changing/re-ordering

 

13.  بَلٰى – Particle of Affirmation: meaning “yes; certainly; indeed; truly; yes”

 

14.  لَوْلَا- Particle of Promotion حَرْف تَحْضِیْض (Why not)

 

15.  (حتّٰى) -This can be Inception Particle (إبْتِدَاء) or Terminal particle (غائية) or Particle of finality. A commonly used example is given below as to how the same particle means with nouns in different states.

 

Nominative example:

 

 (أكلْت السَّمَكَةَ حتّٰى رَاسُهَا)

I ate the fish and started from its head

Nominative (raasuhaa) as inception particle

 

Accusative example:

 

 (أكلْتُ السَّمَكَةَ حتّٰى رَاسَهَا)

I ate the fish until I ate even his head

Accusative (raasahaa) as terminal particle

 

Genitive example

 (أكلْتُ السَّمَكَةَ حتّٰى رَاسِهَا)

I ate the fish until I ate even his head

Genitive (raasihaa) as terminal particle

 

This Particle has been used quite a few times in al-Qur’an. Another Example would be:

 

At-Tur - Verse 45

فَذَرْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ

So, leave them until they meet their Day

(Here, حَتّٰىis in the meaning of a terminal statement)

 

 

 

 

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