Sarf and Nahw Summary: 1.5b - Non-Active Particles

 

Non-Active Particles حُرُوْفُ غَيْرُ الْعَامِلَةِ

a.   

 

Non-active particles do not have any effect on nouns or verbs. These particles are mentioned for classification purposes (being non-active) here. The meanings vary depending upon the usage. Most common are mentioned. More details are given in later pages:

 

- Particles of Conjunction (حُرُوْفُ الْعَاطِفَة) and

 

اَلْوَاوُ

اَلْفَاء

ثُمَّ

حَتّٰى

أَوْ

إمَّا

أَمْ

لَا

بَلْ

لٰكِنَّ

and

and

then

until

or

or

or

not

Nay

But

These particles are described in more detail later

 

- Particles of Caution حُرُوْفُ التَّنْبِيْهِand these are three:

 

هَا

أَمَّا

اَلَا

Here you are

As for

Beware

هَا أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ حَاجَجْتُمْ

فَأَمَّا مَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

أَلَا سَاءَ مَا

 يَزِرُونَ

Here you are - those who have argued

Then as for one whose scales are heavy [with good deeds],

Beware! Bad will be what they bear.

 

- Particles of Answer حُرُوْفُ الْإِيْجَابِand these are six:

 

إِيْ

بَلَىٰ

نَعَمْ

yes

yes, indeed

yes

قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ

بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ

قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنَّكُمْ

 لَمِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ

Say, "Yes, by my

 Lord. Indeed, it is

 truth

Yes, [it is so]; and He

is the Knowing Creator.

He said, "Yes,

 and, [moreover

], you will

be among those made

near [to me]

 

- Particles of Explanation حُرُوْفُ التَّفْسِيْرِand these are two:

 

 أَيْmeaning “that is/any” and أَنْ meaning “that, so that, to, in order to”

 

- Particles of Promotion حُرُوْفُ التَّحْضِيْضِ Most common one is لَوْلَا:

 

  A Verb is required after these particles.

 

لَوْلَاmeaning “If not, why not”

 

فَلَوْلَاإِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ

Then why not, when the soul at death reaches the throat

 

- Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِand it is only one which is قَدْ. This word can give two meanings. One is for emphasis and is called (حَرْف تَحْقِيْق) and gives the meaning of certainly. The other is for near past (مَاضِيْ قَرِيْب) as in (قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلَاةِ) meaning the salaat group has stood up.

 

- Particles of Interrogation حُرُوْفُ الْاِسْتِفْهَامِand these are three: مَا, اَلْهَمْزَةُ and, هَلْ. These all come in the meaning of what, have you, etc. For example:

 

1) وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا هِيَهْ meaning “And what can make you know what that is”

2)أَأَمِنتُم مَّن فِي السَّمَاءِ meaning “Do you feel secure that He who [holds authority] in the heaven”

3)وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَىٰ meaning “And has the story of Moses reached you?”

 

  - The particle of Deterrent/Scolding حُرُوْفُ الرَّدَعِ and these are كَلَّا(definitely not) and it comes from the meaning of حَقًا(that is the way it will be) and similar to that are Actor Nouns مَا, أَنْ, لَوْ, أَمَّا, for conditional Noun شَرَطٌ such as “if, that”.

 

- اَلتَّاءُ التّاْنِيْثُ (ة) also called اَلتَّاءُالْمُتَحَرِّكَةُor round (ة) is required at the end of a Noun and long (ت) also called اَلتَّاءُالسَّاكِنَةُis required at the end of past tense for the feminine gender.

 

- Nunation تَنْوَيْنٌ is the letterن (نُوْنُ السَّاكِنَةِ) and it follows the last vowel and it is not for emphasis such as سَعِيْدٌ meaning happy.

 

- Letter (ن) of emphasis is either lightened with a single harakah or it is a مُشَدَّدَةٌ اَلِفٌ(اّ) and is applied to Verbs only and it enters at the end of Imperative Verb اَلْأَمْرُ, Negative Imperative Verb اَلنَّهِىُّ, Interrogative Pronoun اَلْاِسْتِفْهَامُ, اَلتَّمَنِّيْ Desire, اَلْعَرْضُ Request, اَلْقَسَمُOath and rarely for negative اَلنَّفْيُ. This is described later in section 6.6.

 

 

۞۞۞

 


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