Sarf and Nahw Summary: 1.5a - Active Particles

 



Section 1.5 - Particles
حُرُوْفٌ

 

Particles are of two types:

 

a)    active Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ

b)     inactive Particles حُرُوْفٌ غَيْرُ الْعَامِلَةِ.

 

a.    Active Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلَةِ

 

Active particles: when these particles are used before a Noun or a Verb, they change the state to any of the three (Nominative/ accusative/ Genitive) for noun and (Indicative/ Subjunctive/ Jussive) for Verbs.

 

b.    Particles that give Genitive state to Noun

 

These are particles that give a Genitive state to Nouns that come after it. These are prepositions called (حُرُوْف الْجَرِّ) and end up being part of Genitive compound جَار وَمَجْرُوْر. These are:

 

1.    (بِ) اَلْبَاءُmeaning “with” as in بِسْم اللهِ meaning “(I) Begin with the name of Allah”.

 

2.    (تَ) اَلتَّاءُused for an oath for Allah only as in تَاللّٰهِ meaning ‘BY Allah”.

 

3.    (كَ) اَلْكَافُmeaning “similar to/likened to” as in مَثَلُ

نُوْرِهٕ كَمِشْكٰوةٍ فِيْهَا مِصْباحٌ

meaning “His light may be likened to a niche wherein is a lamp”.

 

4.    (لِ) اَللَّامُmeaning “for” as in فَصَلِّي لِرَبَّكَmeaning “so pray only for your Lord”.

 

5.    (وَ) اَلْوَاوُused for oath as in وَالنّٰزِعٰتِ غَرْقًا meaning “By those (angels) who pluck out from the depths”.

 

6.    حَاشَا used for forbidding as in حَاشَا لِلّٰهِ meaning “God forbid” in Surah Yousuf.

 

7.    مِنْ meaning “from” as in مِنَ البَيْتِ meaning from the house.

 

8.    عَنْ meaning “about” as in عَنِ النَّعِيْمِ meaning about the bliss/pleasures

 

9.     عَلٰىmeaning “on/upon” as in وَاِنَّهُ عَلٰى ذَالِكَ لَشَهِيْدٌ meaning “and he himself is a witness upon it”.

 

10.حَتّٰى meaning until (more details are givenlater) as in حَتّٰى زُرْتُمُ الْمُقَابِرَ meaning “until you reach the graves”.

 

11.فِيْ meaning “in” as in فِي الدُّنْيَا والآخِرَةِ meaning “in the world and the hereafter”.

 

12.اِلٰى meaning “to/towards” as in وَاِلٰى رَبِّكَ فَارْغَبّ meaning “and turn all your attention to your Lord”.

 

c.     Particles that give Subjunctive state to Imperfect verb

 

Particles that give Subjunctive state (نَصْبٌ) to imperfect tense فِعلُ الْمُضَارِع and these are four (Mote details in chapter on particles):

 

1

2

3

4

أَنْ

لَنْ

كَىْ

إِذَنْ

 

1. اَنْun means “that”. It is called the particle of verbal source (حَرْف مَصْدَرِيَة). When this Particle enters before a فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ, the Verb gives the meaning of the Source الْمَصْدَرُ which is like saying to work, to eat, etc. instead of working, eating. Using the فَعَلَ die, its imperfect tense is يَفْعَلُ which means he does/he is doing/he will do. When اَنْ is added in front يَفْعَلَ اَنْ, the meaning now becomes “that he does”.

 

     Al-Mulk - Verse 17

 

 أَن يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا

meaning: that he would send upon you a storm of stones?

 

2. لَنْlun has no meaning. It is called a Negative particle. When this Particle enters in front of فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ, it creates a strong negative emphasis and also it associates the Verb to future only. By itself, لَنْ does not mean anything. Using the فَعَلَ, its imperfect tense is يَفْعَلُ which means he does/he is doing/he will do. When used with لَنْ lun, this becomes يَفْعَلَ لَنْwhich now means he will not do it. Note that يَفْعَلُbecame يَفْعَلَ.

 

Aal-e-Imran - Verse 92

 لَنْ تَنَالُوا الْبِرَّ...

 meaning: you will never attain true piety ….

 

3. كَيْ kai means “so that”. This Particle when added to a فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ, it gives the purpose of the Verb. This construction has been used in al-Qur’an 4-5 times. Some examples are given below:

 

An-Nahl - Verse 70

وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا

Meaning: And among you is he who is returned to the most decrepit [old] age so that he will not know, after [having had] knowledge, a thing.

 

4. اِذَنْ izan means “then”: This Particle is usually used as a reaction or response to a previous sentence.

 

 An-Nisaa - Verse 53

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

Meaning: Or have they a share of dominion? Then [if that were so], they would not give the people [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

 

d.    Particles that give Jussive state (جَزمٌ) to an imperfect verb

 

-        Particles that give Jussive جَزَمٌ to Imperfect Tense فِعْل الْمُضَارِع and these are five:

 

1إِنْ. This is a condition particle that gives Jussive state to imperfect tense as in إِنْ تُبْدُواْ meaning if you disclose. تُبْدُواْ here is jussive.

 

2.لَمْ This is a strong negative particle as in لَمْ يَنْصُرْ meaning “he did not help”. يَنْصُرْ is jussive.

 

3.لَمَّاThis is to declare near past as in لَمَّا يَنْصُرْmeaning He has not helped yet.

 

4.لَامُ الْأَمْرِ  (لِ) command verb as in وَلِيَنْصُرْ meaning He should help

 

5.  لَاءُ النَّهْيِ (لَا) Negative command verb as in لَا تَنْصُرْ meaning “Do not help”.

 

-        Particles Resembling a Verb اَلْحُرُوْفُ الْمُشِبْهَةُ بِالْفِعْلِ that give Accusative نَصْبٌto Nouns and the Nominative رَفْعٌto the Predicates اَلْخَبَرُ. These are also called إنَّ وَ أخَوَاتُهَا(Inna and her sisters) and they are six in number:

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

إِنَّ

أَنَّ

كَأنَّ

لٰكِنَّ

لَيْتَ

لَعَلَّ

 

1.     اِنَّ   meaning “Definitely, For sure”

      اِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Definite Allah is with those who are patient

 

2.      اَنَّmeaning “Definitely, For sure”

اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهِ

I witness that Mohammed SAW definitely is a messenger of Allah

 

3.      كَاَنَّmeaning “Like/similar to”

 كَانَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوْتٌ

 They (females) are like sapphire

 

4.      لٰكِنَّmeaning But

 لٰكِنِ الَّذِيْنَ اَتَّقُوْا رَبَّهُمْ

But those who fear their Lord

 

5.       لَيْتَ meaning “wish”

يَا لَيْتَنِىْ كُنْتُ تُرَابًا

Oh, I wish I was dust.

 

6.        لَعَلَّmeans “perhaps”

 لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُوْٕنَ

Perhaps you all will be successful

 

- Particles of Call حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءُ are those that give Accusative نَصْبٌ to اَلْمُنَادٰى(the one who is called), اَلْمُضَافُ(the possessed in a Possessive compound), and five Indeterminate non-Flexible Nouns يَا meaning O, أَيَاor أَيَّتُهَا/أيُّهَا(male/female) meaning “O so and so”, هَيَاmeaning “hurry up/let us go”, أَيْmeaning “that is”, اَلْهَمْزَةُ which is used for interrogation.

 

 - And لَا (اَلنَّافِيَةُ لِلْجنْس), مَا and لَا (with the meaning of لَيْسَ) give Accusative نَصْبٌ to Noun.


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