Sarf and Nahw Summary: 5.6/5.7/5.8/5.9 - Weak /Strong/Past/Present/Future Imperfect Particles

 


5.6 - The weak and strong imperfect verb

 

Construction with weak imperfect verb (مُضَارِع خَفِيْف)

 

He will never do                

لَنْ يَفْعَلَ

لَن

That he does

أَن يَفْعَلَ

أَن

So that he does

كَئ يَفْعَلَ

كَئ

Then he will do

إذًا يَفْعَلَ

إذًا

Until he does

حَتّٰى يَفْعَلَ

حَتّٰى

So that he does

(same as كَئ)

لِيَفْعَلَ

لِ

He will do it

لَيَفْعَلَ

لَ

 

Construction with Strong imperfect verb (مُضَارِع أخَفْ)

 

He did not do at all

 

لَمْ يَفْعَلْ

لَمْ

He did not do yet

لَمَّا يَفْعَلْ

لَمَّا

If he does then

اِنْ يَفْعَلْ

اِنْ

He should do it

لِيَفْعَلْ

لِ

 

 

 

(you) Do it

اِفْعَلْ

فعل أمر

Don’t do it

لَا تَفْعَلْ

فِعْل نفي

مخاطب

He should not do it             لَا يَفْعَلْ


فِعْل نفي

غائب

 

۞۞۞




Section 5.7 - Other General Notes for Verbs

 

a.   Jaar/majroor is usually an associate of predicate/noun/verb etc. It can be made Shibhul Jumla (شِبْهَةُ الْجُمْلَة) by adding an Omitted noun. The Jar/Majroor becomes Associate of the Omited noun (which is always from Mushtaqqat) as described below, Then the combination can be made a Predicate (الْخَبْر). If a nakirah noun comes after jar/majroor, then it becomes shibhul jumla. Still, it comes as a siffat.

 

     Shibhul Jumla is always made from Mushtaqqat such as Actor noun (اِسْم فَاعِل), Subject noun (اِسْم مَفعُوْل), Exaggerative (اِسْمُ الْمُبَالَغَة), Comparative /Superlative nouns (اِسْمُ التَّفْضِيْل). These are called Shibhul Feil (شِبْهَةُ الْفِعْل).

 

     The Omitted nouns and verbs commonly used have been described before. If it is a verb, then it needs an actor (فَاعِل) and subject (مَفعُوْل)/Associate (مُتَعَلَّق) as needed. A noun is added if a predicate is unclear for a Beginning Noun الْمُبتَدأand there is an Associate (مُتَعَلَّق) alone is indicating it. Then an Omitted noun is assumed and the associate is attached to it and the noun can be made a predicate خَبْر.

 

 

b.   If the words like (قَالَ, قُلْ) are used in any form, then they are called a (قَوْلٌ) and what is said (sentence after it) is called a (مَقُوْلةٌ).

 

c.    When a relative pronoun like (اَلَّذِي/مَا مَوْصُوْلَة) is used in a sentence,

 

1. A Sila صِلَة (Relative Clause) is required for a مَوْصُوْل (Relative pronoun) and then it becomes مَوْصُوْل/صِلَة, and it becomes the part of a sentence such as Subject فَاعِل, Beginning noun الْمُبتَدأ, Predicate الْخبْرُ, Adjective الْصِفَّةُ, Possessor مُضَاف إليْهِ, or Genitive مَجْرُوْر for a Genitive compound thatالْمُرَكَّبُ الْجَارِي.

 

2. A pronoun is required which points to the source (مَرْجِعْ) meaning to a person, place, etc. It is called an عَائد meaning return. For example:

 

فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُوا مِنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ

Therefore, those who ridiculed (the messengers) amongst them were surrounded by that which they were making fun of (the judgment day/punishment)

 

Here both اَلَّذِي and مَا مَوْصُوْلَة are used and two ayads are hum هُمْ in سَخِرُوا and hum هُمْ in يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ.

 

b.   Subordinating clause (تَاوِيْل الْمَصْدَر)

 

This is an (أنْ) and gives a masdar interpretation of the verb. For example:

 

ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

 

Then they will no longer be able to do any mischief for themselves except to say (falsely), by Allah our Lord, we were not polytheists.

 

قَالُوا here gives the meaning of Masdar (to say).

 

a.     (اَنَّ) even though it is from inna and its sisters, can also give the meaning of “that” as in (أنْ) as in:

 

{قُلْ لَوْ اَنَّ عِنْدِيْ مَا تَستَعْجِلُوْنَ بِهِ}

Say: If I had that, what you demand so hastily” (6:58)

 

***


 

Section 5.8 - Past/Present/Future Interpretation of Verbs with Different Particles

 

 

1.    If an إذَا or إذْ is used before a past tense, then the verb gives the meaning of present or future. For example:

a)     

 

إِذَا جَآءَ نَصْرُ اللهِ وَالْفَتّحُ

When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest,

 

Here. جَاَءَ is past tense but giving the meaning of future which when it happens.

 

2. If a past tense مَاضِي verb comes after kaana كَانَ then, it gives the meaning of مَاضِي بَعِيْد or distant past.

 

3. If a past tense مَاضِي verb comes after Qad قَدْthen, it gives the meaning of مَاضِي قَرِيْب or near past as in:

 

قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلٰوة meaning the Salah has stood up (is ready) as used in Iqamah إِقَامَة.

 

1.    If an Imperfect tense فِعْل مُضَارِع comes after Kaana كَانَ, it gives the meaning of مَاضِي إسْتِمْرَارِي or past continuous tense as in:

 

قَالُوْا اَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَدْعُوْنَ مِنْ دُوْنِ اللهِ

they will say, "Where are those you used to invoke besides Allah?

 

Here because of kuntum كُنْتُمْwhich is a variant of kaana كَانَ, the imperfect verb تَدْعُوْنَ is giving the meaning of past continuous tense (used to).

 

 

 

 

 

 

***


 

Section 5.9 - Subject فِاعِلٌand فِعْلٌ Rules in Verbs

 

When Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ is explicit/mentioned, then the following rules apply:

 

1. The Actor/Subject is a common/indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌthen, Verb فِعْلٌ is always single irrespective of whether the Actor/Subject is single/dual or plural but with proper gender.

 

Examples:

 

Any man heard------------------------- سَمِعَ رَجُلٌ

Any two men heard------------------سَمِعَ رَجُلَانِ

Men heard-------------------------------سَمِعَ رِجَالٌ

Any woman heard----------------- سَمِعَتْ إِمْرَأَةٌ

Any two women heard----------سَمِعَتْ إمْرَأَتَانِ

women heard-------------------------سَمِعَتْ نِسَاءٌ

 

2. The Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌis broken plural الْمُكَسَّرِ جمْعُ of non-intelligent beings anything other than humans, angels, jinns then Verb فِعْلٌis always a single female. Examples:

 

Camels went – ذَهَبَتِ الْجِمَالُ

Female camels went – ذَهَبَتِ النُّقُ

 

3. If the Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ is a broken plural جمْعُ الْمُكَسَّرِof intelligent beings, then verb فِعْلٌcan again be male or female single. Examples:

 

Men entered: دَخَلَ الرِّجَالٌ or دَخَلَتِ الرِّجَالٌ

 

Women entered:  النِّسَاءُ دَخَلَتِ or دَخَلَ النِّسَاءُ. The first one was النِّسَاءُ دَخَلَتْ and when a word with a jazm at the end is combined with hamzatul wasli of next word, the jazm ْ is replaced by a kasrah.

 

Bedouins said قَالَ الأعْرَابُ or قَالَتِ الأعْرَابُ.  The second version is used in al-Qur’an in surah al-Hujuraat.

 

4. If Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ is a collective Noun, then again both single male or female فِعْلٌ can be used. For example,

 

Nation conquered: غَلَبَ الْقَوْمُor الْقَوْمُ غَلَبَتِ

 

1.    If Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ is not a true feminine gender, then also the same rule applies; For example:

 

Sun came out/rose طلَعَ الشَّمْسُor الشَّمْسُ طلَعَتِ

 

2.    And finally, if the Verb فَاعِلٌ is a true female gender but there are words between Verb فِعْلٌ and Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌthen also the above rule applies. For example:

 

Fatimah read today: قَرَءَ الْيَوْمَ فَاطِمَةُ orالْيَومَ فَاطِمَةُ  قَرَءَتِ

 

 

 

 

 

 

۞۞۞

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