Nahw Meer English: 9.1/9.2 Exception Discussion/Flexibility of Excepted




Section 9.1 – Exception Discussion  .  فَصلٌ ٩. ١ - بِحِثُ الْمُسْتَثْنٰي


An Exception اَلْمُسْتَثْنَىٰ is a word used after the Exceptive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْاِسْتِثْنَاءُ. They are اٍلَّا meaning “except” and its sisters, and these are غَيْرَ, سِوَىٰ, سَوَاءَ, حَاشَا, خلَا, عَدَا, مَا خَلَا, مَا عَدَا, لَيْسَ, and لَا يَكُوْنُ. All of these are various forms of expressing an exception.


It is used to exclude some part after the Exceptive Particle from any rule mentioned before it, and what is taken out from the source is called the Exceptive مُسْتَثْنٰى مِنْهٗ and what is taken out from it is called Excepted مُسْتَثْنٰى. Excepted is of two kinds, attached مُتَّصِلٌ and, detached مُنْقَطِعٌ.


Attached Excepted: What is excluded by إِلَّاand its sisters from the rule mentioned before it and it is part of what is mentioned. For example, زَيْدًا إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ meaning “All people came except Zaid”, Zaid is part of the people but excepted from the rule.


Detached Excepted: What is mentioned after إِلَّاand its sisters, not related to what was mentioned before. For example, جَاءَنِيْ الْقَوْمُ إِلَّا حِمَارًاmeaning “all people came except the donkey” which is not part of the people and mentioned after exceptive Particle.


Section 9.2 – Flexibility of Excepted  فَصْلٌ ٩. ٢ – إِعْرَابُ الْمُسْتَثْنٰى


The flexibility of Excepted has four types:


1) When an Excepted occurs in a Positive مُوْجَبٌ sentence after إِلَّا then it will always be Accusative مَنْصُوْبٌ. For example, زَيْدًا إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ meaning “All people came except Zaid”. مُوْجَبٌsentences do not have a negative نَفْيٌor نَهْيٌ and interrogative اِسْتِفْهَامٌ. Non-positive غَيْرَ مُوْجَبٍare the opposite of these.


Similarly, an Excepted is always Accusative نَصْبٌ when it is detached as in the example given before which was جَاءنِيْ الْقَوْمُ إِلَّا حِمَارًا. Accusative نَصْبٌ is given similarly when Excepted is ahead of the Exceptive as in أَحْدٌ زَيْدًا إلَّا جَاءَنِيْ مَا meaning “nobody came to me except Zaid”.
When an Excepted occurs after مَا خَلَا,مَا عَدَا ,لَيْسَ , and لَا يَكُوْنُ, then Accusative نَصْبٌ is a requirement for it. For example
 زَيْدًا الْقَوْمُ لَيْسَ جَاءَنِيْ,
 زَيْدًا عَدَا مَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ,
 زَيْدًا خَلَا مَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِي and
 جَاءَنِيْ الْقَوْمُ لَا يَكُوْنُ زَيْدًا
 all meaning “people came to me except Zaid alone”.

2) When Excepted occurs in non-positive غَيْرَ مُوْجَبٍ sentence after إِلَّاwith the fact that the Exceptive is being mentioned, then two ways are allowed:


–Excepted is Accusative نَصْبٌ because of the presence of the particle of exception. For example زَيْدًا إِلَّا أَحَدٌ جَاءَنِيْ مَا meaning “no one came to me except Zaid”.


–Nominative اَلرَّفْعُ over what is substitute اَلْبَدَلُof its predecessor as in زَيْدٌ إِلَّا أَحَدٌ جَاءَنِيْ مَا meaning “no one came to me except Zaid”. Here Zaid is the substitute for no one.


3) When an Excepted phrase is empty (meaning Exceptive is not mentioned) and Excepted occurs in a non-positive sentence, then the Excepted is given flexibility اَلْإِعْرَابُ depending on different active Particles اَلْعَوَامِلُ. For example,

-In Nominative مَا جَاءَنِيْ إِلَّا زَيْدٌ (رَفْعٌ) meaning, “no one came to me except Zaid”.

-In Accusative مَا رَأَيْتُ إِلَّا زَيْدًا (نَصْبٌ) meaning, “I did not see anyone except Zaid”.

-In Genitive مَا مَرَرْتُ إِلَّا بِزَيْدٍ (جَرٌّ) meaning, “I did not pass by anyone except Zaid”.


4) When an Excepted occurs after غَيْرُ, سِوٰى ,سَوَاءَ  then Exceptive Particles act like Possessed مُضَافٌ of Possessive Compound مُرَكَّبُ الْإِضَافِيْ and Excepted becomes Genitive مَجْرُوْرٌ. For example:

زَيْدٍ غَيرَ الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ, زَيْدٍ سِوٰى and سَوَاءَ زَيْدٍ all “meaning people came to me without Zaid”.


If Exception occurred after “حَاشَا” then it will be Genitive مَجْرُوْرٌin schools of thought of many scholars and it is allowed to be Accusative نَصْبٌ also in some others. For example, زَيْدٍ حَاشَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ and زَيْدًا حَاشَا both meaning “people came to me except Zaid”.


And when an Exception occurs after خَلَاand عَدَا, Accusative نَصْبٌ is given according to most scholars and Genitive جَرٌّ is allowed by some of them. For example, زَيْدًا خَلَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ, زَيْدًا عَدَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ,

 زَيْدٍ خَلَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ, and زَيْدٍ عَدَا الْقَوْمُ جَاءَنِيْ all meaning “people came to me except Zaid”.


And flexibility for the word غَيْرُ is like the flexibility of Exception for إِلَّاin all situations mentioned. Then, you can say,

-[1] حِمَارٍ غَيْرَ وَ زَيْدٌ غَيْرَ الْقَوْمُ جَاءنِيْ meaning “people came to me except Zaid and except the donkey”.

مَا جَاءَنِيْ غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ الْقَوْمُ -   meaning “people did not come to me except Zaid”.

-مَا جَاءَنِيْ أَحْدٌ غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ  meaning “no one came except Zaid”.

-مَا جَاءَنِيْ غَيْرُ زَيْدٍ meaning “no one except Zaid came to me”.

-مَا رَأَيْتُ غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ meaning “I did not see anybody except Zaid”.

-مَا مَرَرْتُ بِغَيْرِ زَيْدٍ meaning “I did not pass by anybody except Zaid”.


The word “غَيْرَ” is used for an adjective صِفَّتٌand sometimes comes for Exception اَلْاِسْتِثْنَاءُ, like the word “إِلَّا” was created for Exception and was used for an adjective as Allah SWT Says in Surah Al-Ambiaa, Ayah 22


﴿لَوْ كَانَ فِيْهِمَا اٰلِهَةً إِلَّا اللهُ لَفَسَدَتَا


meaning “if there were gods between the earth and sky except for Allah (غَيْرُاللهِ), there would be chaos” and similarly it is said:

لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللهُ

 Meaning “there is no god/deity except Allah”.


The End

and All Praise to Allah

تَمَّتْ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ



[1] جَاءَنِي الْقَوْمُ غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ is an example for a positive sentence and جَاءَنِي الْقَوْمُ غَيْرَ حِمَارٍ an example for detached exception,

مَا جَاءَنِي غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ الْقَوْمُis an example for Exception ahead of the Excepted, مَا جَاءَنِي أَحْدٌ غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ an example for Accusative exception,

 مَا جَاءَنِي أَحْدٌ غَيْرُ زَيْدٍ an example for Nominative اَلرَّفْعُ over what is substitute اَلْبَدَلُof its predecessor,

 مَا جَاءَنِي غَيْرُ زَيْدٍ / مَا رَأَيْتُ غَيْرَ زَيْدٍ/ مَا مَرَرْتُ بِغَيْرِ زَيْدٍ are three empty exceptions depending on presence of different active Particles اَلْعَوَامِلُ.