Nahw Meer English: 8.2/8.3 – Triptote/Diptote Nouns/Non-Active Particles

 



 

Section 8.2 – Triptote/Diptote Nouns

فَصْلٌ ٨ . ٢ – اسْمُ الْمُنْصَرِفِ وَ غَيْرِالْمُنْصَرِفِ

 

You have recognized in the description in Chapter 4, types of fully and partially declinable Nouns. Here we will describe their definitions and examples.

 

Fully Declinable also called Triptote اَلْمُنْصَرِفُ: It is a Noun that does not meet the two Conditions for Prevention of Full Declension called الصَّرْفِ مَنْعِ أَسْبَابُ as in زَيْدٌ and عَمْرٌو.

 

Partially Declinable also called Diptote الْمُنْصَرِفِ غَيْرُ: It is a Noun that meets at least two conditions of declension or a single condition which stands in their place or is equivalent to two of them.

 

Conditions of Declension are Nine:

 

Transformation اَلْعَدْلُ, Descriptive اَلْوَصْفُ, Feminine Genderاَلتَّاْنِيْثُ  equivalent to two when gender is feminine with maqsoorah (ىٰ) or mamdoodah (اء), Definite Noun اَلْمَعْرِفَةُ, Foreign word اَلْعُجْمَةُ, Plural اَلْجَمْعُ equivalent to two, A Compound اَلتَّرْكِيْبُ (some, not all compounds), Pattern of a Verb وَزْنُ الْفِعْلِ, and the Extraneous (ا) and (ن) called (زَائِدَتَانِ وَالنُّوُنُ اَلْأَلِفُ).

 

Examples of Declinable Nouns:

 

Table 15 – Declinable Nouns اَلْمُنْصَرِفُ

Noun

Meaning

First Condition of Declension

Second Condition of Declension

عُمَرُ

Definite Proper Noun

اَلْعَدْلُ transformation since this name comes from عَامِرٌ

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

ثُلَاثَ وَ مَثْلَّثَ

Indefinite Nouns نَكِرَةٌ

Third and Triangle

اَلصِّفَّةُ the adjective

اَلْعَدْلُ since these come from ثَالِثٌ

طَلْحَةُ

Definite Proper Noun

اَلتَّانِيْثُ الْلَفْضِيُّ female gender ة

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

زَيْنَبُ

Definite Proper Noun

الْمَعْنَوِّيُ  التَّانِيثُ

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

حُبْلَىٰ

Definite Proper Noun

اَلتَّاْنِيْثُ بِالْأَلِفِ الْمَقْصُوْرَةِ Feminine gender by maqsoorah alif (ىٰ).

This is equivalent to two conditions of declension

None Required

حَمْرَاءُ

Red color

اَلتَّاْنِيْثُ بِالْأَلِفِ الْمَمْدُوْدَةِ Feminine gender by mamdoodah alif (اَء).

This is equivalent to two conditions of declension

None Required

اِبْرَاهِيمَ

Definite Proper Noun

اَلْعُجْمَةُ This is a non-Arab or foreign name

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

مَسَاجِدَ وَ مَصَابِيْحَ

Indefinite Nouns نَكِرَةٌ

 

جَمْعُ الْمُنْتَهٰى اَلْجُمُوْعَ or ultimate plural of plurals.

This is equivalent to two conditions of declension

None Required

بَعْلَبَكَّ

Name of a King

اَلتَّرْكِيْبُ Since this is a compound

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

أَحْمَدَ

Name

وَزَنُ الْفِعْلِ This is a scale based on Verb أَفْعَلَ

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

سَكْرَانَ

intoxication

اَلْأَلِفُ وَالنُّوْنُ كِلَاهُمَا زَائِدَتَانِ This is extraneous letters (ا) and (ن).

وَصْفُ Descriptive

عُثْمَانَ

Definite Proper Noun

اَلْأَلِفُ وَالنُّوُنُ زَائِدَتَانِ This is extraneous letters (ا) and (ن).

اَلْعَلَمُ Definite Proper Noun

 

Investigate Partially Declinable or diptote غَيْرُ الْمُنْصَرِفِ to learn more from other detailed books.

 

Section 8.3 – Non-Active Particles

فَصْلٌ ٨ . ٣   – حُرُوْفُ الْغَيْرِ الْعَامِلَةِ

 

These are sixteen types:

 

1) Particles of Caution التَّنْبِيْهِ حُرُوْفُ These are three: اَلَا ,أَمَا , and هَا used for alerting like “caution!”.

 

2) Particles of Answer حُرُوْفُ الْإِيْجَابُ: These are six: نَعَمْ,بَلَىٰ ,أَجَلْ , اِيْ, جَيْرِ, and إِنَّ meaning “yes”, “certainly”, “indeed”, “that is”, which and “no doubt” respectively.

 

3) Particles of Explanation حُرُوْفُ التَّفْسِيْرِ: These are two: أَيْand أَنْ, both for “as”, as Allah SWT Says in Surah As-Saaffaat Ayah 103:

 ﴿وَنَادَيْنَاہُ أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيْمَ

 

meaning “We called him as O Ibrahim”.

 

4) Particles of Verbal Source الْمَصْدَرِيَةُ اَلْحُرُوْفُ: These are three: مَا, أَنْ, أَنَّ. Particles مَا and أَنَّ enter the Verb and cause it to give the meaning of a Verbal Source.[1]

 

5) Particles of Promotion حُرُوْفُ التَّحْضِيْضِ: These are four: اَلَّا,(that not/may not) هَلَّا[2](why did you not),لَوْلَا (except for/but for) and لَوْمَا (if not)

 

6) Particles of Expectation حُرُوْفُ التَّوَقُّعِ: This is قَدْ and it is for emphasis on the Past Tense, bringingthe Past Tense closer to Present Tense, and to show something happening infrequently with the Imperfect Tense مُضَارِعٌ.

 

7) Particles of Interrogation حُرُوْفُ الْاِسْتِفْهَامِ: These are three: مَا, اَلْهَمْزَةُ (أَ) and هَلْ all meaning “did you”.

 

8) The particle of Deterrent حُرُوْفُ الرِّدْعِ: It is كَلّا meaning “definitely not” and it is used for stopping and scolding and to say that it is the way something will happen. For example, Allah SWT Says in Surah At-Takathur, Ayah 3:

تَعْلَمُوْنَ سَوْفَ كَلَّا ﴿ meaning “you will soon know”.

 

9) Particles of Nunation تَنْوِيْنٌ: There are five types:

 

No. 1. لِلتَّمَكِّنِfor the place as in the flexibility. For example, زَيْدٌ where Nunation تَنْوِينٌ is for the Nominative رَفْعٌ status.

No. 2. لِلتَّنْكِيْرِ for making it an Indefinite Noun اَلنَّكِرَةُas in صَهٍ meaning “be quiet” or “hush” or “stop talking”. Although, صَهْ without Nunation تَنْوِينٌ is used to say “be quiet now”.

No. 3. اَلْعِوَضُfor use instead of the original as in يَوْمَئِذٍ which is used instead ofيَوْمَ إذْ كَانَ كَذَا.

No. 4. لِلْمُقَابَلَةِfor comparison purpose as inمُسْلِمَاتٍ  meaning “Muslim women” as compared to مُسْلِمِيْنَmeaning “Muslim men”.

No. 5. لِلتَّرَنُّمِfor poetic rhyme and it occurs or is used at the end of the poem’s lines.

As in:                                                        

 

اَقَلِّي اللَّوْمَ عَاذِلَ وَالْعِتَابَنْ

وَقُوْلِي إِنْ أَصَبْتُ لَقَدْ أصَابَنْ

 

Meaning “blame me and reproach me less O Aazila, and if I did any good, say he did well”.

 

The Nunation تَنْوِينٌof rhyme enters on all three kinds of words, that is, Noun, Verb, and Particle.

 

As for the first four, these are specific to Nouns and we have mentioned them in signs of recognizing a Noun.

 

10) (ن) of emphasis نُوْنُ التَّوْكِيْدِ at the end of Imperfect Tense مُضَارِعٌ. These are of two kinds:

 

          – Strong Emphasis اَلثَّقِيْلَةُ, as in اِضْرِبَنَّ

          – Weak Emphasis اَلْخَفِيْفَةُ as in اِضْرِبَنْ

 

11) Redundant Particles حُرُوْفُ الزَّيَادَةِand there are eight of these:

إِنْ  ,أَنْ  ,مَا ,لَا  ,مِنْ ,اَلْكَافُ  (ك) , اَلْبَاءُ(ب), اللَّامُ (ل) and last four have been described in Genitive جَرٌّ Particles.

 

12) Conditional Particles حُرُوْفُ الشَّرطِand these are two: أَمَّاand لَوْ. أَمَّا is for detail and it is necessary to have letter ف in its answer. For example, Allah SWT Says in Surah Hud, Ayah 105-108:

﴿فَمِنْهُمْ شَقِيٌّ وَ سَعِيْدٌ فَأمَّا الَّذِيْنَ شَقُوْا فَفِي النَّارِ وَ أَمَّا الَّذِيْنَ سُعِدُوْا فَفِيْ الْجَنَّةِ

meaning “And amongst them, there are wretched and blessed, and those who are wretched shall be in the fire, and those who are blessed shall be in the Jannah”.

 

And if the second sentence is negative in context, it will be because of the negative context of the first sentence. As Almighty Allah Says in Surah Al-Ambiaa, Ayah 22

﴿ لَوْ كَانَ فِيْهِمَا اٰلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللهُ لَفَسَدَتَا

meaning “If they had gods other than Allah between the two (earth and sky) they would be corrupted/conflicted”. It is meant that because of no multiple gods except One Allah, there is no corruption or conflict.

 

13). لَوْلَا (If not): Here if the second sentence is negative in context, it is because of the positive context of the first sentence, as in:

          لَوْ لَا عَلِيٌ لَهَلَكَ عُمَرُ

meaning “If not for Ali, Omar would have died”. It is meant here that the absence of Omar’s death is because of the presence of Ali being there.

 

14). Letter (ل) of emphasis with Fathah: as in:

 عَمْرٍو مِنْ أفْضَلُ لَزَيْدٌ meaning “Definitely Zaid is better than Amr”.

 

15). مَا with the meaning of مَادَامَ meaning “as long as” as in اَلْأَمِيرُ جَلَسَ مَا أَقُوْمُ meaning “I will stand as long as the leader is sitting”. مَا here is in the meaning of مَادَامَ.

 

16). Additive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَطْفِ and these are ten:

اَلْوَاوُ (و) meaning “and”, اَلْفَاءُ (ف) meaning “and/then”, ثُمَّ “again”, حَتّٰى “until”, إِمَّا “whether/as for”, أَوْ “or”, أَمْ also meaning “or”, لَا “no/not”, بَلْ “still/but”, and لٰكِنَّ “but”.

 

 

۞۞۞




[1] As in, Allah SWT Says in Surah At-Tauba, Ayah 118 وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ﴿ meaning “the earth became insufficient for them in-spite of its breadth”, that is “earth became unwelcoming”.

 Or اَعْجَبْنبْي أَنْ ضُرِبْتَ أَي ضَرَبَكَ meaning “I was surprised that you were hit or he hit you”.

[2] فَعَلْتَ ألَّا and هَلَّا فَعَلْتَ meaning “why did you not do it”.


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