Nahw Meer English: 8.1 – Dependency Attributes تَوَابِعُ

 



This chapter includes three sections covering several subjects that are important to know:

 

Section 8.1 – Dependency Attributes  فَصْلٌ ٨ . ١ – تَوَابِعُ

 

A dependent word اَلتَّابِعُ is a word that occurs after another word and it is given status or flexibility إِعْرَابٌ of the first word. The first word is called independent اَلْمَتْبُوْعُ. The second word is called Dependent اَلتَّابِعُ.

 

The rule of the Dependent word is that it follows the independent word in flexibility إِعْرَابٌ.

 

Dependent words اَلتَّوَابِعُ are of five kinds:

 

Dependent No.1 اَلتَّابِعُ الْأَوَّلُ: It is the adjective اَلصِّفَّةُ and it is of two types. First: This dependent word اَلتَّابِعُindicates the meaning in the independent word مَتْبُوْعٌ. For example, جَاءَنُيْ رَجْلٌ عَالِمٌ meaning “a man came to me who was a scholar”. Second: This dependent word اَلتَّابِعُ indicates the meaning in the word which is about the independent word مَتْبُوْعٌ. For example,

 غُلَامُهُ حَسَنٌ رَجْلٌ جَاءَنِيْ or أَبُوْہُ meaning “a man came to me whose servant was good looking or his father was good looking”.

 

Kinds of Type 1: This dependent word تَابِعٌ follows the independent word مَتْبُوْعٌ in ten things: in Definite and Indefinite Nouns اَلتَّعْرِيْفُ وَ التَّنْكِيْرُ, Male اَلتَّذْكِيْرُ, Female اَلتَّاْنِيْثُ, Singular مُفْرَدٌ, Duality اَلتَّثْنِيَةُ, Plurality اَلْجَمْعُ, nominative اَلرَّفْعُ, Accusative اَلنَّصْبُ, Jussive جَزَمٌ as in:

 

هٰذَا زَيْدٌ الْعَالِمُ meaning “this is Zaid who is a scholar”. Both Zaid and scholar have a commonality in all four characteristics required to define a Noun which are capacity, gender, quantity, flexibility (Definite Noun, male, singular, and Nominative).

 

عِنْدِي رَجْلٌ عَالِمٌ  meaning “I have with me a man who is a scholar” (Indefinite Noun male, singular, and Nominative)

 

رَجُلَانِ عَالِمَانِ meaning “two (male) scholars” (Indefinite Noun male, dual, and Nominative)

 

رِجَالٌ عَالِمُوْنَ meaning “scholarly men” (Indefinite Noun male, plural, and Nominative)

 

اِمْرَأَةٌ عَالِمَةٌ meaning “scholarly woman” (Indefinite Noun female, plural, and Nominative)

 

إمْرَأتَانِ عَالِمَتَانِ meaning “two scholarly women” (Indefinite Noun female, dual, Nominative)

 

نِسْوَةٌ عَالِمَاتٌ meaning “scholarly women” (Indefinite Noun female, plural, and Nominative)

 

Kinds of Type 2: Where type 2 is concerned, the dependent word تَابِعٌ follows the independent word مَتْبُوْعٌ in five things: in Definite and Indefinite Nouns اَلتَّعْرِيْفُ وَ التَّنْكِيْرُ, nominative اَلرَّفْعُ, Accusative اَلنَّصْبُ, and Genitive اَلْجَرُّ. Other than these five, no other attributes are required to be followed as in:

 

-جَاءَنِيْ رَجُلٌ عَالِمٌ أَبُوْہُ meaning “A man came to me whose father is a scholar”. For example, Allah SWT Says in Surah An-Nisaa, Ayah 75

﴿رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هٰذِہِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالمِ أَهْلُهَا         

meaning “Our Lord, get us out from this village whose people are oppressors”.

 

And adjective is required to be an Indefinite Noun اَلنَّكِرَةُin a Verbal Sentence اَلْجُمْلَةُ الْخَبَرِيَّةُ as in عَالِمٌ أَبُوْہُ رَجُلٌ جَاءَنِيْ meaning “a man came to me whose father was a scholar”. When this happens, there must be a Pronoun ضَمِيْرٌ that points toward the Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ. Here the Pronoun (ہُ) is pointing towards the Indefinite Noun رَجْلٌ.

 

Dependent No.2 اَلتَّابِعُ الثَّانِيْ: It is the word for emphasis اَلتَّاكيْدُ. It establishes the status of dependent word اَلتَّابِعُ to follow its independent word اَلْمَتْبُوْعُ such that no doubt remains for the listener.

 

Emphasis اَلتَّاكِيْدُis of two kinds, Literal لَفْظِيٌّand Implied مَعْنَوِيٌّ.

 

-Literal Emphasis اَلتَّاكِيْدُ الْلَّفْضِيْ is achieved by repetition of words, as in زَيْدٌ زَيْدٌ قَائِمٌ meaning “Zaid is definitelystanding”, or ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ ضَرَبَ meaning “Zaid definitely hit” or إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ إِنَّ meaning “very definitely, Zaid is standing”.

 

-Implied Emphasis اَلتَّاكِيْدُ الْمَعْنَوِيُّ has eight words for it. These are:

1) نَفْسٌused for self

2) عَيْنٌ used for self

3) كِلَاused for male duality

          4) كِلْتَا used for female duality

 

كِلَا and كِلْتَا do not have any meaning by themselves.

 

          The next four are used altogether.

5) أجْمَعُ Used for the plurality

6) أكْتَعُ Used for the Plurality

7) أبْتَعُ Used for the Plurality

8) أبْصَعُ Used for the Plurality

 

As in جَاءَنِيْ زَيْدٌ نَفْسُهُ meaning "Zaid came to me himself", جَاءَنِيْ الزَّيْدَانِ أَنْفُسُهُمَا meaning “both Zaids came to me themselves”, جَاءَنِيْ زَيْدُوْنَ أَنْفُسُهُم meaning “all Zaids came to me themselves”. Similarly, you can guess these for the word عَيْنٌ.

 

Also, جَاءَنِيْ الزَّيْدَانِ كِلْاهُمَا meaning both Zaids themselves came to me and الْهِنْدَانِ كِلْتَاهُمَا جَاءَتْ meaning both Hinds (female name) came to me themselves. كِلَا and كِلْتَا are both reserved for duality اَلْمُثَنّٰى.

 

Also, جَاءَنِيْ الْقَوْمُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُوْنَ وَأَكْتَعُوْنَ وَأَبْتَعُوْنَ وَأَبْصَعُوْنَmeaning “The entire community/nation came to me”. And أَكْتَعُ, أَبْتَعُ, and أَبْصَعُ are dependent on أَجْمَعُ. They do not act without أَجْمَعُ and they do not come before it.

 

Dependent No. 3 اَلتَّابِعُ الثَّالِثُ: It is the substitute (The permutative) اَلْبَدَلُand it is a dependent because its aim is to be related to its independent word اَلْمَتْبُوْعُ. There are four types of substitutes, بَدَلُ الْكُلِّ, بَدَلُ الْاِشْتِمَالِ,بَدَلُ اَلْغَلَطِ, and بَدَلُ الْبَعْضِ.

 

1) Complete Substitute بَدَلُ الْكُلِّ: It is a substitute by itself for independent word,  اَلمُبْدَلْ مِنْهُas in

 جَاءَنِيْ زَيْدٌ أَخُوْكَ meaning “Zaid came to me, your brother” or in other words “Zaid, your brother came to me”. أَخُوْكَ here is the complete substitute for زَيْدٌ.

 

2) Partial Substitute بَدَلُ الْبَعْضِ: It is a partial substitute from its independent word, as in

 ضُرِبَ زَيْدٌ رَأْسُهُ meaning “Zaid was hit, his head” or in other words “Zaid was hit on his head”. رَاسُهُ here is a partial substitute for Zaid اَلْمُبْدَلُ مِنْهٗ because it is a part of Zaid’s body.

 

3) Relative Substitute بَدَلُ الْاِشْتِمَالِ: It is a substitute that is related to the independent word اَلْمُبْدَلُ مِنْه as in ثَوْبُهُ زَيْدٌ سُلِبَ meaning “taken from Zaid, his clothes” or in other words “Zaid’s clothes were taken from him”.

 

4) Corrective Substitute بَدَلُ الْغَلَطِ: It is added after a wrong word is said, for correction with the right word, as in مَرَرْتُ بِرَجُلٍ حِمَارٍ meaning I passed by a man, a donkey. The speaker meant to say I passed by a donkey but since he had already said the word a man, he corrected it by adding a donkey.

 

Dependent No. 4 اَلتَّابِعُ الرَّابِعُ: It is the additive with letter of conjunction (وَ) or الْعطْفُ بِحَرْفِ الْوَاوِ It aims to relate both dependent تَابِعٌ and independent مَتْبُوْعٌ words and it introduces a Particle from Additive/Conjunctive Particles. For example, letter (و) as in عَمْرٌو وَ زَيْدٌ جَاءَنِيْ meaning “Zaid and Amr came to me”. This is also called عَطْفُ النَّسْقِ.

 

The ten Additive/Conjunctive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَطْفِ عَشَرَةٌ will be described in later Sections, in-sha-Allah.

 

Dependent No. 5 اَلتَّابِعُ الْخَامِسُ: It is the statement additive عَطْفُ الْبَيْانِ. It is dependent on an independent word مَتْبُوْعٌ thatis not an adjective صِفَةٌand there is no Additive Particle between them. For example,

أَقْسَمَ بِاللهِ أَبُوْ حَفْصٍ عُمَرُ meaning “Hafsa’s father Omar swears by Allah SWT”. This is because Omar is famous by his name and not by his calling name أبُوْ حَفْصَةُ. Another example is:

 عَمْرٍو أَبُوْ زَيْدٌ جَاءَنِيْ meaning “Zaid came to me, Amr’s father” or in other words “Amr’s father Zaid came to me” because Amr is famous by his calling name

 أَبُوْ عَمْرٍو.


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