Nahw Meer English: 6.10/6.11 - Praise/Slander Verbs أَفْعَالُ الْمَدْحِ وَالذَّمِّ

 


Section 6.10 – Praise/Slander Verbs

فَصْلٌ ٦ .١٠ – أَفْعَالُ الْمَدْحِ وَالذَّمِّ

 

Verbs for praise and slander are four:

 

 نِعْمَ and حَبَّذَا meaning good and both are for praise.

بِئْسَ and سَآءَ meaning evil/bad, both are for slander.

 

What comes after the actor فَاعِلٌ is said to be specific to praise or specific to blameand slander. And a condition in its actions is that the actor فَاعِلٌbe Definite Noun with letters (ا) and (ل), مَعْرِفَةٌ بِاللَّامِ as in the sentence زَيْدٌالرَّجُلُ نِعْمَ meaning “Zaid is a good man”. Or when it is a Possessed مُضَافٌ part of the Possessive Compound مُرَكَّبُ الْإِضَافِيْ towards a مَعْرِفَةٌ بِاللَّامِ, as in نِعْمَ صَاحِبُ الْقَوْمِ زَيْدٌmeaning “Zaid belonging to the tribe is a good man”.

 

Or the actor فَاعِلٌ is an invisible/unseen Pronoun ضَمِيرَاً مُسْتَتِراًand is a Clarification (التَّمْيِيْزُ) of an Indefinite Accusative مُمَيَّزًا بِنَكِرَةٍ مَنْصُوْبَةٍ, as in نِعْمَ رَجُلًا زَيْدٌ meaning “he is a good man, Zaid” and the actor فَاعِلٌ for نِعْمَ is the Unseen/Invisible Pronoun in it which is hidden “هُوَ”. The Accusative رَجُلًاis Clarification تَمْيِيْزٌand it clarifies the vague unseen/invisible Pronoun. Similar to that is

بِئْسَ الرَّجُلُ زَيْدٌ and عَمْرٌو الرَّجُلُ سَآءَboth meaning “Amr is a bad person”. And as for details of حَبَّذَازَيْدٌ, حَبَّ is a praise verb, ذَا its actor فَاعِلٌ and زَيْدٌ is specific to the praise بِالْمَدْحِ مَخْصُوْصٌ.

 

Section 6.11 – Verbs of Exclamation فَصْلٌ ٦. ١١ – فِعْلُ التَّعَجُّبِ

 

The Exclamation Verbs are two versions مُشْتَقَّتَانِ صِيْغَتَانِ that are derived from each Verbal Source مَصْدَرٌof the three-lettered (trilateral) root word الْمُجَرَّدُ  الثُّلَاثيُ :

 

1) From أَفعَلَهٗ مَا: As in مَا أَحْسَنَ زَيْدًا meaning “how good looking Zaid is”, and its original form is أَيُّ شَيءٍ أَحْسَنَ زَيْدًا meaning “what thing made Zaid so handsome”. أيُّ شَيءٍis in a Nominative رَفْعٌ position/location for the beginning of the sentence, أَحْسَنَ زَيْدًا is the sentence that occurs in a Nominative رَفْعٌ position/location as Predicate for اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ, and actor فَاعِلٌ for أحْسَنَ is a Pronoun “هُوَ” which is Unseen/Invisible اَلْمُستَتِرُ in أحْسَنَ and زَيْدًا is the Object

 بِهٖ مَفْعُوْلٌ.

 

2) From أفْعِلْ بِهٖ: As in أحْسِنْ بِزَيْدٍ meaning “Zaid is looking handsome”. أحْسِنْhere is Imperative Verb فِعْلُ أمْرٍin the meaning of Predicate اَلْخَبَرُ. It comes from the form زَيْدٌ أحْسَنَ or صَارَ ذَا حَسُنٍ meaning “Zaid became good looking” and (ب) is excessive and is used for the beauty of the phrase.

 

These two Verbs are only made from three-letter root words الثُّلَاثيُ الْمُجَرَّد.

 


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