; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 2.2 - Shortening of Alphabets and Joining

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2.2 - Shortening of Alphabets and Joining



 

Section 2.2 – Shortening of alphabets for writing words

 

To be able to read and write Arabic, one needs to know alphabets, and then also know how it is joined with others in 1) beginning of a word 2) middle of a word and 3) end of a word. Below is Table 2 that gives the shortened/modified version of alphabets which contain the specific recognizable features of the alphabets that are used in the beginning, middle or end:

 

Table 2 - Modified Alphabets for Joining to Form Words

 

Hamzah Forms

End

Middle

Beginning

ـأ

ـأ

أ

ـئ

ـئـ

إ

ـؤ

ـؤ

ا

ء

ء

--

 

Alif Forms

End

Middle

Beginning

ـا, ـى

ـا

No words in Arabic start with alif

 

Remaining ب through ي Forms

 

End

Middle

Beginning

Alphabet

 

--

--

--

ا

1

ــب

ــبــ

بــ

ب

2

ــت/ ــة/ ة

ــتــ

تــ

ت

3

ــث 

ــثــ

ثــ

ث

4

ــج

ــجــ

جــ

ج

5

ــح

ــحــ

حــ

ح

6

ــخ

ــخــ

خــ

خ

7

ــد

ــد

د

د

8

ــذ

ــذ

ذ

ذ

9

ــر

ــر

ر

ر

10

ــز

ــز

ز

ز

11

ــس

ــســ

ســ

س

12

ــش

ــشــ

شــ

ش

13

ــص

ــصــ

صــ

ص

14

ــض

ــضــ

ضــ

ض

15

ــط

ــطــ

طــ

ط

16

ــظ

ــظــ

ظــ

ظ

17

ــع

ــعــ

عــ

ع

18

ــغ

ــغــ

غــ

غ

19

ــف

ــفــ

فــ

ف

20

ــق

ــقــ

قــ

ق

21

ــك

ــكــ

كــ

ك

22

ــل

ــلــ

لــ

ل

23

ــم

ــمــ

مــ

م

24

ــن

ــنــ

نــ

ن

25

ــه

ــهــ

هــ

ه

26

ــو

ــو

و

و

27

ــي

يــ

يــ

ي

28

 

1.          Example of Alphabets ب/ت/ث using ب:

 

a)     ب at the beginning with Word بَيْتٌ (bai-tun) meaning "house"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ت

Middle version of ي

Beginning

Version of ب

بَيْتٌ

بــَ يــْ ــتٌ

ــتٌ

يــْ

بـَـ

 

b) بin the middle with word عَبَدَ (aba-da) meaning "slave"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of د

Middle version of ب

Beginning version of ع

عَبَدَ

عَــ ــبــَ ــدَ

ــدَ

ــبــَ

عــَ

 

c)     ب in the end with word غَضَبَ(gha-da-ba) meaning "anger"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ب

Middle version of ض

Beginning version of غ

غَضَبَ

غــَ ـضَــ ــبَ

ــبَ

ــضَــ

غــَ

 

2.     Example of Alphabet ب/ت/ث using ت

 

a)     ت at the beginning with word  تَلَا(ta-laa) meaning "recite/follow"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ا

Middle version of ل

Beginning

version of ت

تَلَا

تــَ ــلــَ ــا

ا

ــلــَ

تــَ

 

b)     ت in the middle with word  كَتَبَ(aba-da) meaning "write"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ب

Middle version of ت

Beginning version of ك

كَتَبَ

كــَ تــَ بَ

ــبَ

تــَ

كــَ







 

c)     ت in the end with word  مَاتَ(maa-ta) meaning "die"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ت

Middle version of ا

Beginning version of م

مَاتَ

مــَ ا تَ

تَ

ا

مــَ

 

When the previous alphabet is written in full form, then, تis also written in full form and not as ــت

 

Similarly, for the alphabet ث.

 

3.     Example of Alphabets ج/ ح / خ using ج:

 

a)        ج at the beginning with word  جَمَلٌ(ja-ma-lun) meaning "camel"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ل

Middle version of م

Beginning

version of ج

جَمَلٌ

جَــ ــمَــ ــلٌ

ــلٌ

ــمـَـ

جَــ

 

b)     ج in the middle with word  رَجَعَ(ra-ja-aa) meaning "go back/return"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ع

Middle version of ج

Beginning version of ر

رَجَعَ

رَ جــَ ــعَ

ــعَ

جــَ

رَ

 

c)     ج in the end with word  خَرَجَ(Kha-ra-ja) meaning "leave"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ج

Middle version of ر

Beginning version of خ

خَرَجَ

خَــ ــرَ جَ

جَ

ــرَ

خــَ

 

Similarly, for alphabets ح/خ.

 

4.     Example of Alphabets د / ذ / ر / زusing د:

 

a)     د at the beginning with Word دَخَلَ (da-kha-la) meaning "to enter"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ل

Middle version of خ

Beginning

Version of د

دَخَلَ

دَ ــخــَ ــلَ

ــلَ

ــخَــ

دَ

 

b)     د in the middle with word  صَدَقَ(sa-da-qa) meaning "be true"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ق

Middle version of د

Beginning version of ص

صَدَقَ

صَــ ــدَ ــقَ

ــقَ

ــدَ

صَــ

 

c)     د in the end with word شَهِدَ(sha-hi-da) meaning "bear witness"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of د

Middle version of ه

Beginning version of ش

شَهِدَ

شَــ ــهِــ دَ

دَ

ــهــِ

شــَ

 

Similarly, for alphabets ذ / ر / ز

 

5.     Example of Alphabets س /ش / ص / ضusing س:

 

a)          س at the beginning with Word سَمِعَ (sa-mi-aa) meaning "to listen"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ع

Middle version of م

Beginning

Version of س

سَمِعَ

ســَ ــمـِ ــعَ

ــعَ

ــمـِ

ســَ

 

b)     س in the middle with word كَسَرَ(ka-sa-ra) meaning "to break"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ر

Middle version of س

Beginning version of ك

كَسَرَ

كــَ ســَ ــرَ

ــرَ

ســَ

كــَ

 

c)     س in the end with word دَرَسَ(da-ra-sa) meaning "to learn"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of س

Middle version of ر

Beginning version of د

دَرَسَ

دَ رَ سَ

سَ

رَ

دَ

 

When the first alphabet is written in full form, then, the second letter assumes the first letter form.

 

Similarly, for alphabets ش / ص / ض

 

6.     Example of Alphabets ط/ظ using ط:

 

a)     ط in the beginning with Word  طَمَعَ (ta-ma-aa) meaning "to yearn/hope for"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ع

Middle version of م

Beginning

Version of طــ

طَمَعَ

طـَـ ــمـَ ــعَ

ــعَ

ــمـِ

طَــ

 

b)     ط in the middle with word قَطَعَ(Kha-ta-aa) meaning "to cut/split"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ع

Middle version of ط

Beginning version of ق

قَطَعَ

قــَ ــطَــ ــعَ

ــعَ

ــطَــ

قــَ

 

c)     ط in the end with word رَبَطَ(ra-ba-ta) meaning "to connect"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ط

Middle version of ب

Beginning version of ر

رَبَطَ

رَ بــَ طَ

طَ

بــَ

رَ

 

When the first alphabet is written in full form, then, the second letter assumes the first letter form بــَ and not as ــَبــ.

 

Similarly, for alphabet ظ.

 

7.     Example of Alphabets ع/غusing غ:

 

a)     غ at the beginning with Word غَفَرَ (Gha-fa-ra) meaning "to forgive"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ر

Middle version of ف

Beginning

Version of غ

غَفَرَ

غــَ ــفــَ ــرَ

ــرَ

ــفــَ

غــَ

 

b) غin the middle with word صَغِرَ(Sa-ghi-ra) meaning "to lessen, be small"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ر

Middle version of غ

Beginning version of ص

صَغِرَ

صــَ ــغــِ ــرَ

ــرَ

ــغــِ

صــَ

 

c) غin the end with word فَرَغَ (fa-ra-gha) meaning "to have leisure"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of غ

Middle version of ر

Beginning version of ف

فَرَغَ

فــَرَغَ

غَ

ــرَ

فــَ

 

Similarly, for alphabet ع.

 

8.     Example of Alphabets ق/ف using ق:

 

a) فin the beginning with Word فَرِحَ (Fa-ri-ha) meaning "to be happy"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ح

Middle version of ر

Beginning

Version of ف

فَرِحَ

فــَ ــرِ حَ

حَ

ــرِ

فــَ

 

b) فin the middle with word غَفَرَ (Gha-fa-ra) meaning "to forgive"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End Version of ر

Middle version of ف

Beginning

Version of غ

غَفَرَ

غــَ ــفــَ ــرَ

ــرَ

ــفــَ

غــَ

 

c) فin the end with word حَلَفَ (Ha-la-fa) meaning "to take an oath"

 

Connected Final version

Full word

End version of ف

Middle version of ل

Beginning version of ح

حَلَفَ

حــَ ــلــَ ــفَ

ــفَ

ــلــَ

حــَ

 

Similarly, for alphabet ق.

 

9) Joining Hamzah with Consonants

 

أ + ا = آ

ل + أ = لأ / ـلأ

ل + إ = لإ / ـلإ

ل + ا = لا / ـلا

 

All 9 sets of examples above have been given to refreshing the Arabic writing for those who had some training. If you are a complete beginner, then it is highly recommended that you learn with the help of a teacher if you want to be able to reasonably read and write Arabic.

 

 

 

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