; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 5.3 - Incomplete Compound in a Sentence


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5.3 - Incomplete Compound in a Sentence


Section 5.3 - Use of Incomplete Compound in a Sentence


It was mentioned earlier that there is a minimum of two parts required to make a complete sentence. These are mubtada and Khabar or predicate. Both can be a single word or a compound word (simple or complex). In the following examples, the use of incomplete compounds is explained.




1.     Allah is the owner of the dominion (اللّٰهُ مَالِكُ الْمُلْكِ):

a)     Here Allah (اللّٰهُ) is a singular mubtada

b)     مَالِكُ الْمُلْكِ meaning owner of the dominionis a possessive compound which is the predicate (al-khabar).  مَالِكُ is in Nominative state and الْمُلْكِ is in a genitive state to make an idaa-ficompound.

2.   Allah has control over everything (اللّٰهُ علٰى كلِّ شَئٍ قديْرٍ): Here


a.      Allah (اللّٰهُ) is a singular mubtada in nominative (raf-un) state.

b.     علىٰ is a harf e Jarrpreposition meaning “over”. Anything that follows it should be majroor meaning it has to be in a state of jaror genitive state.

c.    كلُّ شَيٍ (kul-lu shaiy-in) is an idaa-ficompound meaning “all things”.

d.     قدِيْرٌ qadee-run (controller) combined with كلُّ شئٍ makes second descriptive compound قدِيْرٌ  كلُّ شَيٍ.

e.     Combining harf-e-Jarrعلىٰ with قديْرٌكلُّ شَئٍ   becomes the Genitive compound causing all words after al-aa to go into genitive (jarr-un) state.

f.       علٰى كلِّ شَيٍ قَدِيْرٍ then becomes predicate for mubtada اللّٰهُ.


2.     Mohammed (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is the messenger of Allah مُحَمَّدٌﷺ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ (Mo-hamma-dun Rasool-ul-lahi).

a)      مُحَمَّدٌﷺ here is الْمُبْتَدَاءُ al-mub-tadau and

b)      رَسُوْلُاللّٰهِ rasoolul-lahi is the possessive compound which is the predicate الْخبَرُ (al-khaba-ru) meaning messenger of Allah.


3.     Allah’s messenger was truthful and trustworthy رَسُوْلُ اللّٰهِ الصَّادِقُ والْاَمِيْنُ rasoolul-lahis sadiquwal ameenu.

a)      Here رَسُوْلُ اللّٰهِ is a possessive compound and is mub-tada for the sentence.

b)     الصَّادِقُ وَالْاَمِيْنُ is a combination of الصَّادِقُ and الْاَمِيْنُ which are joined with an additive alphabet وَ which means “and”, and is called الْعَاطِفَةُ اَلْحَرْفُ (al-har-fulaa-tifa-tu)



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