; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 5.2 - Nominative Sentence

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5.2 - Nominative Sentence



 

 

Section 5.2 - Nominative Sentence الْجُمْلَةُ الْاٍسْمَيَّةُ (jum-la-tul is-miyya-tu)

 

An example of a nominative sentence is زيْدٌ عَالِمٌ Zai-dun aa-li-mun which means Zaid is a scholar. Note that a nominative sentence is always in the present tense. To make it a past tense an active element called كَانَ (kana) is added and similarly to make it a future tense, another active element يَكُوْنُ(ya-koo-nu) is used. These will be described later in the book when Verbs are discussed.

 

Following three rules are important to remember:

 

Rule No. 1:

The first part of a sentence is called the beginning اَلمُبْتَدَاءُ(al-mub-tadau).  If this is a single word, it is usually a definite Noun. This could also be an incomplete compound word in which case the incomplete compound will follow its own rules mentioned in the previous chapter. The second part is calledاَلْخَبَرُ (al-kha-ba-ru) predicate. This could also be a single word or a compound word. In case it is a single word, it is usually an indefinite Noun.

 

Rule No. 2:

 

a)     The difference between a sentence and a descriptive compound is that in a sentence the beginning (al-mub-ta-daa-u) is usually a definite Noun and its predicate (al-kha-ba-ru) is indefinite. If you take a sentence and change either the (mubtada) or (khabar) to match the capacity of the other, it will become a descriptive compound.

b)     Both mubtada and khabar are nominative unless some active element causes one or both of them to go into other states.

c)     Both mubtada and Khabar have to match for number and gender.

 

Rule no. 3:

 

The Arabic language also does not have equivalent words for “is”, “are”, “was”, and “were”. The meaning is automatically created by using a proper combination of words in the sentence as mentioned in rule no.1.

 

Rule no. 4:

 

When the مُوْصُوْفٌ mau-soo-fun is a plural of a non-intelligent being, the صِفَّةٌ sif-fa-tun(adjective) can be a single. For example, اَبْوَابٌ مَفَاتِيْحٌ (ab-waa-bunmafa-tee-hun) meaning open doors can also be اَبْوَابٌ مَفْتُوْحَةٌ (ab-waa-bunmaf-too-ha-tun).

First, we will take one example of a simple sentence (Truthful Muslims) and take it through nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un). Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) states to get an idea of how states of al-mubtada (beginning) and al-khabar (predicate) are changed to create a sentence instead of a descriptive compound. Pay close attention to the first and last columns in particular. The last column is the complete compound version of the incomplete compound in the first column.

 

Table 24 – Descriptive Compound/Complete Compound Comparison

 

Descriptive Compound

Complete Compound

With the Same Example

Descriptive Compound

Example

Transliteration

Properties of al-mubtada and Khabar

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un)

 

مُسْلِمٌ صَادِقٌ

 

Truthful Muslim

mus-li-mun Saa-di-qun

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Male, single, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

المُسْلِمُ صَادِقٌ

The Muslim is truthful

مُسْلِمانِ صَادِقَانِ

Two Truthful Muslims

Mus-li-maa-ni Sa-di-qaa-ni

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُثَنَّىٰ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Male, dual, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

المُسْلِمانِ صَادِقَانِ

The two Muslims are truthful

مُسْلِمُوْنَ صَادِقُوْنَ

Truthful Muslims

Mus-li-moo-na Saa-di-qoo-na

مُذَكَّرٌ، جَمْعٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Male, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

المُسْلِمُوْنَ صَادِقُوْنَ

The Muslims are truthful

مُسْلِمَةٌ صَادِقَةٌ

Truthful Muslimah

Mus-li-ma-tun Sa-di-qa-tun

مُوْنَّثٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، .نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Female, single, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

الْمُسْلِمَةٍ صَادِقَةٍ

The muslimahs are truthful

 

مُسْلِمَتَانِ صَادِقَتَانِ

Two Truthful Muslimahs

Mus-li-ma-taa-ni Saa-di-qa-taa-ni

مُوْنَّثٌ ، مُثَنَّى ، نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Female, dual, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

الْمُسْلِمَتَانِ صَادِقَتَانِ

The two muslimahs are truthful

 

مُسْلِمَاتٌ صَادِقَاتٌ

Truthful Muslimahs (plural)

Mus-li-maatun Saa-di-qaa-tun

مُوْنَّثٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Female, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

الْمُسْلِمَاتُ صَادِقَاتٌ

The muslimahs are truthful

 

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun)

 

مُسْلِمً صَادِقًا

Truthful Muslim

Mus-li-man Saa-di-qan

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُثَنَّىٰ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Male, single, common Noun, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

المُسْلِمَ صَادِقاً

The muslim is truthful

مُسْلِمَيْنِ صَادِقَيْنِ

Two Truthful Muslims

Mus-li-mai-ni Sa-di-qai-ni

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُثَنَّىٰ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Male, dual, common Noun, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

المُسْلِمَانِ صَادِقَانِ

The two Muslims are truthful

مُسْلِمِيْنَ صَادِقِيْنَ

Truthful Muslims

Mus-li-mee-na Saa-di-qee-na

مُذَكَّرٌ، جَمْعٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

 Male, plural, common Noun, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

المُسْلِمِيْنَ صَادِقِيْنَ

The Muslims are truthful

مُسْلِمَةً صَادِقَةً

Truthful Muslimah

Mus-li-ma-tan Sa-di-qa-tan

مُوْنَّثٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Female, single, common Noun, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

الْمُسْلِمَةَ صَادِقًا

The muslimahs are truthful

 

مُسْلِمَتَيْنِ صَادِقَتَيْنِ

Two Truthful Muslimahs

Mus-li-ma-tai-ni Saa-di-qa-tai-ni

مُوْنَّثٌ ، مُثَنَّى ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Female, dual, common Noun, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

الْمُسْلِمَتَيْنِ صَادِقَتَيْنِ

The two muslimahs are truthful

 

مُسْلِمَاتٍ صَادِقَاتٍ

Truthful Muslimahs (plural)

Mus-li-maa-tin Saa-di-qaa-tin

مُوْنَّثٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Female, plural, common Noun, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

الْمُسْلِمَاتِ صَادِقَاتٍ

The muslimahs are truthful

 

 

 

Genitive جَرٌّ (jar-run)

 

مُسْلِمٍ صَادِقٍ

Truthful Muslim

Mus-li-min Saa-di-qin

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Male, single, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

المُسْلِمِ صَادِقٍ

The Muslim is truthful

مُسْلِمَيْنِ صَادِقَيْنِ

Two Truthful Muslims

Mus-li-mai-ni Sa-di-qai-ni

مُذَكَّرٌ، مُثَنَّىٰ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Male, dual, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

المُسْلِمَيْنِ صَادِقَيْنِ

The two Muslims are truthful

مُسْلِمِيْنَ صَادِقِيْنَ

Truthful Muslims

Mus-li-mee-na Saa-di-qee-na

مُذَكَّرٌ، جَمْعٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Male, plural, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

المُسْلِمِيْنَ صَادِقِيْنَ

The Muslims are truthful

مُسْلِمَةٍ صَادِقَةٍ

Truthful Muslimah

Mus-li-ma-tin Sa-di-qa-tin

مُوْنَّثٌ، مُفْرَدٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Female, single, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

الْمُسْلِمَةِ صَادِقَةٍ

The Muslimah is truthful

 

مُسْلِمَتَيْنِ صَادِقَتَيْنِ

Two Truthful Muslimahs

Mus-li-ma-tai-ni Saa-di-qa-tai-ni

مُوْنَّثٌ ، مُثَنَّى ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Female, dual, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

الْمُسْلِمَتَيْنِ صَادِقَتَيْنِ

The two muslimahs are truthful

 

مُسْلِمَاتٍ صَادِقَاتٍ

Truthful Muslimahs (plural)

Mus-li-maa-tin Saa-di-qaa-tin

مُوْنَّثٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Female, plural, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

اَلمُسْلِمَاتِ صَادِقَاتٍ

muslimahs are truthful

 

Other Examples

 

اَلاَيَّامُ الْمَعْدَوْدَاتُ

Numbered days

This can also be

اَيَّامٌ مَعْدَوْدَةٌ

Al-ay-yaa-mul maa-doo-daa-tu

Or

Ay-yaa-mun Ma’doo-daah

مُذَكَّرٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Male, plural, common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

It is also allowed to use a single female for all plurals which are non-intelligent beings

اَلْاَيَّامُ مَعْدَوْدَاتٌ

The days are numbered

 

اَلصِّرَاطُ الْمُسْتَقِيْمُ

The Straight path

Si-raa-tum mus-ta-qee-mun

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Male, single common Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

الصِّرَاطُ مُسْتَقِيْمٌ

The path is straight

 

 

اَلسَّاعَاتُ الْجَمِيْلَاَتُ

Two beautiful watches

As-sa-aa-tul jam-ee-laa-tu

مُوْنَّثٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، مَعْرِفَةٌ ، رَفْعٌ

Female, plural, proper Noun, Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state

اَلسَّاعَاتُ جَمِيْلَاَتٌ

The watches are beautiful

 

اَلْوَلَدَانِ الْمُجْتَهِدَانِ

The two Hard-working boys

Al-wala-daa-ni muj-ta-hi-da-ni

مُذَكَّرٌ ، جَمْعٌ ، مَعْرِفَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Male, plural, proper Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

اَلْوَلَدَانِ مُجْتَهِدَانٍ

The two boys are hard-working

الْكِتَابَ الصَّغِيْرَ

small book

Kita-bun Sa-ghee-run

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، نَصْبٌ

Male, single, accusative, Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state

الْكِتَابَ صَغِيْرً

The book is small

الْمَسْجِدِ الْكَبِيْرِ

Big mosque

Mas-ji-dun Ka-bee-run

مُذَكَّرٌ ، مُفْرَدٌ ، نَكِرَةٌ ، جَرٌّ

Male, single, common Noun, Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state

الْمَسْجِدِ كَبِيرٍ

The mosque is big

 

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