; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 4.1B - Demonstrative Compound

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4.1B - Demonstrative Compound



 

B. Demonstrative Compound الْمُرَكَّبُ الْاِشَارِيْ al-mu-rak-ka-bul ishaa-ri

 

To Understand a Demonstrative Compound, first we need to know the demonstrative pronouns in Arabic. These are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

Again, unlike English, in Arabic language, demonstrative pronouns change with three of the four requirements for a Noun. That is Gender, Number, and Flexibility. The flexibility remains unaffected. Also, like most other languages including English, they are used to point to an entity either near or far.

 

For example, هٰذَا (haa-zaa) is used for a near entity that is male, single, and in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state. See Table 10 below.

 

Table 10 - Demonstrative pronouns

 

 

Single

مُفْرَدٌ

Muf-rad

Dual مُثَنّٰى

Plural

جَمْعٌ

Jama

Nominative

 رَفْعٌ

raf-un

Accusative/Genitive

نَصْبٌ/جَرٌّ

Nas-bun/jarr-un

Near

هٰذَا

haa-dha

This male

هٰذَانِ

 haa-dhaa-ni

These two

males

هٰذِيْنِ

haa-dhai-ni

These two

males

هٰؤُلٓاءِ

Haa-oo-lai

These

هٰذِہِ

Haa-dhi-hi

This female

هَاتَانِ

Haa-taa-ni

 These two

 females

هَاتَينِ

Haa-tai-ni

These two

 females

Far

ذَالِكَ

Dhaa-li-ka

That male

ذَانِكَ

Dhaa-ni-ka

Those two

males

ذَيْنِكَ

Dhai-ni-ka

Those Two

 males

اُوْلٰٓئِكَ

oo-lai-ka

Those

تِلْكَ

Til-ka

That female

تَانِكَ

Taa-ni-ka

 Those two

females

تَيْنِكَ

Tai-nika

Those two

 females

 

For a beginner, it may be appropriate to memorize the first and fourth columns of the above table 10 above which contains the most used demonstrative pronouns. The full table is provided for a complete picture, awareness, and for later use.

 

A demonstrative compound is made by adding a demonstrative pronoun in front of any Noun with the condition that the three properties gender, number, and flexibility match between them. Note the order is the same in Arabic as in English. The demonstrative pronoun comes first and the Noun being pointed next. See examples in Table 11 below.

 

Examples:

 

Table 11 – Demonstrative Compound Examples

 

Near

Far

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Males

 

This man هٰذَا رَجُلٌ

These two men

 هٰذَانِ رَجُلَانِ.

These men رِجَالٌ  هٰؤُلٓاءِ.

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Males

 

This man هٰذَا رَجُلٌ

These two men

 هٰذِيْنِ رَجُلَيْنِ

Those men هٰؤُلٓاءِ رِجَالٌ

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Females

 

That woman إِمْرَاةٌ هٰذِہِ

Those two women

 هَاتَانِ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women اُوْلٰٓئِكَ نِسَاءٌ

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Females

 

That woman هٰذِهِ إِمْرَاةٌ

Those two women

 هَاتَانِ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women هٰوْلَاءِ نِسَاءٌ

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Males

 

This man is written as

ذَالِكَ رَجُلٌ

These two men

 ذَانِكَ رَجُلَانِ.

These men رِجَالٌ  هٰؤُلٓاءِ.

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) Males

 

This man تِلْكَ رَجُلٌ

These two men

 ذَيْنِكَ رَجُلَيْنِ

Those men هٰؤُلٓاءِ رِجَالٌ

 

Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) Females

 

That woman هٰذِهِ إِمْرَاةٌ

Those two women

 تَانِكَ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women اُوْلٰٓئِكَ نِسَاءٌ

 

Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) /Genitive جَرٌّ (jar-un) Females

 

That woman هٰذِهِ إِمْرَاةٌ

Those two women

 تَيْنِكَ إِمْرَاتَانِ

Those women هٰوْلَاءِ نِسَاءٌ

 

 

 

 

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