; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 3.5AB - Propert 4 Quantity of a Noun Single/Dual

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3.5AB - Propert 4 Quantity of a Noun Single/Dual



 

Section 3.6 - Property 4 Quantity of a Noun عَدَدٌ(Ada-dun)

Quantities of Nouns اِسْمٌ is-mun are classified in three ways: Singular muf-ra-dunمُفْردٌ, Dual مُثَنَّي mu-than-na, and Plural جَمْعٌ jam-un.

 

A.     Singular اَلْمُفْرَدُ al-muf-ra-du

 

A singular specifies a quantity of one as in رَجُلٌ ra-ju-lun meaning “a man”.

 

B.     Dual اَلْمُثَنّٰى al-mu-than-na

 

A dual always specifies a quantity of two. It is specified by

 

1)     adding alphabets (ا) and (ن) for nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un. This gives the sound of aani at the end. For example, رَجُلَانِ ra-ju-laa-ni meaning “two men” in Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un.

 

2) adding an alphabet (ي) with fathah and alphabet (ن) with kasrah after that for accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun/ Genitive جَرٌّ jar-run. This gives the sound of ayniat the end. For example, رَجُلَيَنِ ra-ju-lai-niin Accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun/Genitive جَرٌّ jar-un.

 

Examples of Dual Male:

 

Meaning

Dual Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and Genitive جَرٌّ (jar-run)

Meaning

Dual Nominative مُثَنّٰى (mu-than-na)

Meaning

Noun

Two truthful males

صَادِقَيْنِ

 

Saa-di-qai-ni

 

 

Two truthful males

صَادِقَانِ

 

Saadi-qaa-ni

Truthful male

صَادِقٌ

 

Saa-di-qun

Two pious males

صَالِحَيْنِ

 

Saa-li-hee-na

Two pious males

صَالِحَانِ

 

Saa-li-haa-ni

Pious male

صَالِحٌ

 

Saa-li-hun

Two chairs

كُرسِىَّيْنِ

 

Kur-siy-yina

Two chairs

كُرسِيَّانِ

 

Kur-siy-yaa-ni

chair

كُرسِىٌّ

 

kur-siy-yun

Two walls

جِدَارَيْنِ

 

Ji-daa-rai-ni

 

Two walls

جِدَارَانِ

 

Jidaa-raa-ni

wall

جِدَارٌ

 

Ji-daa-run

Two houses

بَيْتَيْنِ

 

Bai-tai-ni

Two houses

بَيْتَانِ

 

Bai-taa-ni

house

بَيْتٌ

 

Bai-tun

Two doors

بَابَيْنِ

 

Baa-bai-ni

Two doors

بَابَانِ

 

Baba-ni

door

بَابٌ

 

Baa-bun

Two men

رَجُلَيْنِ

 

Raju-lai-ni

Two men

 

 

رَجُلَانِ

 

Raju-laa-ni

man

رَجُلٌ

 

Ra-ju-lun

Two boys

وَلَدَيْنِ

 

Wala-dai-ni

 

Two boys

وَلَدَانِ

 

Wala-daa-ni

boy

وَلَدٌ

 

Wala-dun

Two pens

قَلَمَيْنِ

 

Qala-mai-ni

 

Two pens

 

 

قَلَمَانِ

 

Qala-maa-ni

pen

قَلَمٌ

 

Qala-mun

Two books

كِتَابَيْنِ

 

Kitaa-bai-ni

 

 

Two books

كِتَابَانِ

 

Kitaa-baa-ni

book

كِتَابٌ

    kitaa-bun

 

Same aani and ayni sounds also appear for the female Nouns. One point to note is that for a female Noun, the round taa (ة) at the end is replaced by a full taa (ت) to make a مُثَنّٰى (mu-than-na) dual.

 

Examples of مُثَنّٰى(mu-than-na) dual Female:

 

Meaning

مُثَنّىٰ (mu-than-na) dual Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) / Genitive

Meaning

مُثَنّىٰ (mu-than-na) dual Nominative

Meaning

Noun

Two gardens

جَنَّتَيْنِ

 

Janna-tai-ni

 

Two gardens

جَنَّتَانِ

 

Janna-taa-ni

garden

جَنَّةٌ

 

Janna-tun

Two words

كَلِمَتَيْنِ

 

Ka-li-ma-tai-ni

Two words

كَلِمَتَانِ

 

Ka-li-ma-taa-ni

word

كَلِمَةٌ

 

Kali-ma-tun

Two heavy (things)

ثَقِيْلَتَيْنِ

 

Saqee-la-ta-ni

Two heavy (things)

ثَقِيْلَتَانِ

 

Saqee-la-taa-ni

Heavy (thing)

ثَقِيْلَةٌ

 

Tha-qeela-tun

Two women

اِمْرَءَتَيْنِ

 

Imra-a-tai-ni

Two women

اِمْرَءَتَانِ

 

Imra-a-taa-ni

 

woman

اِمْرَءَةٌ

 

Im-ra-a-tun

Two sermons

خُطْبَتَيْنِ

 

Khut-ba-tai-ni

Two sermons

خُطْبَتَانِ

 

Khut-ba-taa-ni

sermon

خُطْبَةٌ

 

Khut-ba-tun

Two signs

اٰيَتَيْنِ

 

Aya-tai-ni

Two signs

اٰيَتَانِ

 

Aya-taa-ni

sign

اٰيَةٌ

 

Aya-tun

Two light (things)

خَفيْفَتَيْنِ

 

Kha-fee-fa-tai-ni

Two light (things)

خَفيْفَتَانِ

 

Kha-fee-fa-taa-ni

Light (things)

خَفيْفَةٌ

 

Kha-fee-fa-tun

Two eyes/springs

عَيْنَيْنِ

 

Ay-nai-ni

Two eyes/springs

عَيْنَانِ

 

Ay-naa-ni

eye

عَيْنٌ

 

Ay-nun

Two hands

يَدَيْنِ

 

Yad-ai-ni

Two hands

يَدَانِ

 

Yad-aa-ni

hand

يَدٌ

 

Yadun

 

Two girls

بِنْتَيْنِ

 

Bin-tai-ni

Two girls

بِنْتَانِ

 

Bin-taa-ni

girl

بِنْتٌ

 

Bin-tun

 

 

Arabic Words for “Both”, kilaaكِلَا and kiltaaكِلْتَا

In Arabic, there is a special way to express the English word “both”.

The following two words are used for this purpose:

  • كِلا (kilaa) meaning “both” for masculine singular
  • كِلْتا (kiltaa) meaning ”both” for feminine singular

They both express the dual (مُثَنَّى) mu-than-na – however, grammatically, they are singular (مُفْرَدٌ muf-ra-dun). The only difference between كِلا kilaaand كِلْتا kil-taa is gender. كِلا kilaa is masculine and كِلْتا kil-taa is feminine.

There are two ways these duals are used:

1)     When these two are first part مُضَافٌ mu-daa-fun of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيْ مُرَكَّبُtowards a pronoun اَلْمُضْمَرُ al-muz-maru. The 2nd part must be a definite, مُثَنّٰى(mu-than-na) dual Noun. For example,

·        both men (كِلَا الرَّجُلَيْنِ kil-ar-raju-laini)

·        both times (كِلْتَا الْمَرَّتَيْنِ kil-tal-mar-ra-tai-ni)

In this application, both words كِلَا kilaaand كِلْتَا kil-taa are proper Nouns.

2)     When these two are placed after a مُثَنّٰى (mu-than-na) dual Noun, you have to add a مُثَنّٰى(mu-than-na) dual pronoun suffix to كِلَا kilaa and كِلْتا kil-taa respectively

 

both men (الرَّجُلَانِ كِلاهُمَا) ar-raju-laani kilaa-huma

both times (الْمَرَّتَانِ كِلْتاهُمَا) al-mar-ra-taani kilta-hu-ma

 

See the table below for examples.

 

Table 7 - Kila and Kilta usage examples

 

 

كِلَا kil-aa – Masculine with a pronoun

كِلْتَا kil-taa - Feminine with a pronoun

Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un

جَاءَ كِلَاهُمَا

 

Jaa-a kilaa-hu-maa

Those two males came

جَاءَتْ كِلْتَاهُمَا

 

Jaa-at kil-taa-hu-maa

Those two females came

Accusative نَصْبٌ

Nas-bun

رَأَيْتُ كِلَيهِمَا

 

Ra-ya-tu ki-lai-himaa

I saw those two males

رَأَيْتُ كِلْتَيْهِمَا

 

Raa-ya-tu kil-tai-himaa

I saw those two females

Genitive

 جَرٌّ

Jar-run

مَرَرْتُ بِكِلَيْهِمَا

 

Marar-tu bi-kila-himaa

I passed by those two males

مَرَرْتُ بِكِلْتَيْهِمَا

 

Mara-tu bi-kil-tai-himaa

I passed by those two females

 

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