; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 3.4C - Definite by Personal Pronoun

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3.4C - Definite by Personal Pronoun



 

C. Definite by Personal pronoun ضَمِيْرٌ dhameer-un

 

All pronouns are definite Nouns. These are called اَلضَّمَائَرُ (adh-dha-mai-ru) which is a plural of ضَمِيْرٌ(dhamee-run) which is singular.

 

Definition of a pronoun

 

Any of a small set of words in a language that are used as substitutes for Nouns or Noun phrases and whose referents are named or understood in that context.

 

Unlike the English language, in Arabic, the pronouns are defined individually depending upon who is being referred to as to gender (male, female) and their number (single, dual, plural).  For a single, like English, one word is used for male هُوَ for he and one for female هِىَ for she. There is no equivalent for "it" in Arabic. Everything has a gender, even numbers. For dual and plural, it is a different story. There are separate pronouns for dual and plural, even for males and females. Thus, we get should get four pronouns for single, dual, male and female. But for dual, male and female are the same (an exception), so ultimately we get three. For example, one word “they” is used for both two or more absent males and females in English. In Arabic, these would be هُمَا (hu-ma) for two absent males and هُمْ (hum) for more than two absent males, هُمَا (hu-ma), for two absent females and هُنَّ (hun-na) for more than two absent females. Same thing happens even for 2nd person, so أَنْتُمَا is used for both dual male and female.

 

Also, in Arabic, prepositions can be detached or attached. Detached pronouns are used by themselves, while attached pronouns are joined with Nouns to form a compound

 

1)   Attached pronouns are always in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state. Examples of detached are هُوَ (hua) meaning he, اَنْتَ (an-ta) meaning you and اَنَا (an-aa) meaning me.

 

2)   Detached pronouns are always in Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) or Genitive جَرٌّ (jarr-un) state. Examples would be كَ for you and ي for me as in كِتَابُكَ (kitaa-bu-ka) meaning your book and كِتَابِيْ (ki-taa-bi) meaning my book. These are described in Table 3 for attached and Table 4 for detached pronouns below after the column version.

 

It is preferred that you remember and memorize the format in the sequence given below (or any other sequence you may have picked up and be consistent) since this is used commonly for other attributes of Nouns and Verbs and this sequence will be used many times later.

 

Here is the order to remember in a column form for detached pronouns:

 

Detached pronouns

 

هُوَ

hua

 (He)

 

هُمَا

Hu-maa

 (Those two males)

 هُمْ

hum

 (They all males)

هِيَ

Hee-yaa

 (she)

 هُمَا

Hu-maa

 (Those two females)

 هُنَّ

Hun-na

 (They all females)

أَنْتَ

An-ta

 (You male)

 أَنْتُمَا

An-tu-maa

 (You two males)

 أَنْتُمْ

An-tum

 (You all females)

أَنْتِ

An-ti

 (You female)

 أَنْتُمَا

An-tuma

 (you two females)

 أَنْتُنَّ

An-tun-na

 (You all females)

اَنَا

An-aa

 (I, single male and female)

 نَحْنُ

Nah-nu

 (we, dual, plural, male, female)

 

 

Tables 3 and 4 below show detached and attached pronouns. In the tables below, these should be memorized starting from the left of the first row (hua, hu-ma, hum) and continue to the second row, again from the left (hiya, huma, hun-na). Next, the third row (anta, an-tuma, an-tum). Then next row (an-ti, antu-maa, an-tunna) and finally the last row (a-naa, nah-nu). The detached pronouns are repeated in a table form for completeness.

 

Note that نَحنُ (nah-nu) is used for both dual and plural for 1st person.

 

Table 3 - Detached pronouns الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُنْفَصِلُ  adh-dhameerul mun-fa-si-lu (رَفْعٌRaf-un) state

 

 

 

Single

Dual

Plural

3rd person

 (absent)

Masculine

هٌوَ

 

 (hua)

 

he, him

هُمَا

 

 (hu-ma)

 

those two - males

هٌم

 

 (hum)

 

they, them - males

Feminine

هِيَ

 

 (hee-ya)

 

she, her

هُمَا

 

 (hu-ma)

 

those two - females

هُنَّ

 

 (hun-na)

 

they, them - females

2nd person

 (present)

Masculine

اَنْتَ

 

 (anta)

 

You - male

اَنْتُمَا

 

 (antu-ma)

 

You two - males

اَنْتُمْ

 

 (an-tum)

 

 

you - males

Feminine

اَنْتِ

 

 (anti)

 

You - female

اَنْتُمَا

 

 (antu-ma)

 

you two - females

اَنْتُنَّ

 

 (an-tun-na)

 

You - female

1st person

 (Speaker)

Masculine

اَنَا

 (ana-aa)

 

I, me – male and female

نَحْنُ

 

 (nah-nu)

 

we, us – males and females

نَحْنُ

 

 (nah-nu)

 

we, us - males and females

 

 

An example of a detached preposition would be هُوَ زَيْدٌ hua Zaid-dun meaning he is Zaid. هُوَ hua here is detached.

 

Table 4 - Attached pronouns الضَّمِيْرُ الْمُتَّصِلُ adh-dhameerul mut-ta-si-lu ( نَصْبٌ/جَرٌّ nas-bun/jarr-un) state

 

 

 

 

Single

 

Dual

Plural

3rd person (absent)

Masculine

هُ

 

 (hu)

 

 

 

he, him

هُمَا

 

(humaa)

 

those two males

هٌم

 

 (hum)

 

they, them - males

Feminine

هَا

 

 (haa)

 

she, her

هُمَا

 (humaa)

 

those two females

هُنَّ

 

 (hun-na)

 

they, them - females

2nd person (present)

Masculine

كَ

 

 (ka)

 

You male

كُمَا

 

 (kumaa)

 

You two males

كُمْ

 

 (kum)

 

you - males

Feminine

كِ

 

 (key)

 

You female

كُمَا

 (kumaa)

 

you two females

كُنَّ

 

 (kun-na)

 

You (all) females

1st person (speaker)

Masculine

ىَ

 

 (ya)

 

I, me

نَا

 

 (naa)

 

we, us – males and females

نَا

 

 (naa)

 

we, us - males and females

Feminine

 

An example for attached pronoun would be اِسْمُكَ meaning “your name” which is made with Noun (اِسْمٌ) and pronoun (كَ) which is the attached form of أنْتَ. That is,

اِسْمٌ + كَ = اِسْمُكَ

Sentence and compound word construction will be explained later to show why the tanween ٌwas changed to a dammah ُُ ) on the alphabet (م) since اِسْمُكَ is a possessive compound in which the first word always has its e’raab lightened and secon word goes into genitive state (جَرٌّ).

 

 

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