; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.9 - Strong Imperfect Tense

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8.9 - Strong Imperfect Tense



 

 

Section 8.9 -  اَلْاَخَفِاَلمُضَارِعُ  Strong Imperfect Tense al-mu-daa-ri-ul akhaf

 

Essentially, in Hidden imperfect tense, the last alphabet is lightened by either removing a harakah or altogether dropping an alphabet. This is where grouping of the inflections that was done for memorizing becomes handy.

 

1) In group 1, dammahon the last alphabet changes to a ْ Jaz-mun/sukoon and يَفْعَلُ yaf-alu becomes يَفْعَلْ yaf-al.

2) In group 2, last alphabet نdrops out and يَفْعَلَانِ yaf-alaa-ni becomes يَفْعَلَا yaf-alaa.

3) In group 3, no changes occur

 

Table 55– Hidden Imperfect Tense

اَلْاَخَفِاَلمُضَارِعُ (also called الْمُضَارِعُ الْمَجْزُوْمْ) Inflections

 

The table below takes the imperfect tense through the 14 inflections with particle لَمْ lumwhich has no meaning but causes a negative as in not at all in the sentence as described in column 2.

 

Table 56 الْخَفِيْفِ الْمُضَارِعُ (also Called الْمُضَارِعُ الْمَجْزُوْمْ) Inflections with particle لَمْ lum

 

Inflection number

Verb

اَخَفْ Akhaf Version when

 لَمْlum used before it

1

يَفْعَلُ

 

Yaf-alu

 

He does or will do

يَفْعَلْ لَمَ

 

Lum Yaf-al

 

He did not do at all

2

تَفْعَلُ

 

Taf-alu

 

She does or will do

تَفْعَلْ لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-al

 

She did not do at all

3

تَفْعَلُ

 

Taf-alu

 

You (male) do or

 will do

تَفْعَلْ لَنْ

 

Lum Taf-al

 

You did not do at all

4

أَفْعَلُ

 

Af-alu

 

I (male/female) do

 or will do

أَفْعَلْ لَمْ

 

Lum Af-al

 

I (male/female) did not do

at all

5

نَفْعَلُ

 

Naf-alu

 

We (male/female/, dual/plural) do

or will do

نَفْعَلْ لَمْ

 

Lum Naf-al

 

We (male/female/, dual/

plural) did not do at all

6

يَفْعَلَانِ

 

Yaf-alaa-ni

 

They both (males)

 do or will do

يَفْعَلَا لَمْ

 

Lum Yaf-alaa

 

They both (males) did not do

At all

7

تَفْعَلَانِ

 

Taf-alaa-ni

 

They both (females)

 do or will do

تَفْعَلَا لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-alaa

 

They both (females)

did not do at all

8

تَفْعَلَانِ

 

Taf-alaa-ni

 

You both (males)

 Do or will do

تَفْعَلَا لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-alaa

 

You both (males)

did not do at all

9

تَفْعَلَانِ

 

Taf-alaa-ni

 

You two (females) do

or will do

تَفْعَلَا لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-alaa

 

You both (males) did not do

at all

10

يَفْعَلُوْنَ

 

Yaf-aloo-na

 

They all (males) do

or will do

يَفْعَلُوْا لَمْ

 

Lum Yaf-aloo

 

They all (males) did not do

at all

12

تَفْعَلُوْنَ

 

Taf-aloo-na

 

You all (males) do

or will do

تَفْعَلُوْا لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-aloo

 

You all (males) did not do

 at all

14

تَفْعَلِيْنَ

 

Taf-alee-na

 

You (female) do

or will do

تَفْعَلِيْ لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-alee

 

You (female) did not do at all

11

يَفْعَلْنَ

 

Yaf-al-na

 

They all (females) do

or will do

يَفْعَلْنَ لَمْ

 

Lum Yaf-al-na

 

They all (females) definitely

do not or will not do at all

13

تَفْعَلْنَ

 

Taf-al-na

 

You all (females) do

or will do

تَفْعَلْنَ لَمْ

 

Lum Taf-al-na

 

You all (females) did not do

at all

 

 

These changes in an imperfect tense occur when any of the following alphabets show up before it.

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