; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.8 - Weak Imperfect Tense

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8.8 - Weak Imperfect Tense



Section 8.8 - الْخَفِيْفُالْمُضَارِعُ al-mu-daa-ri-ul khafee-fu Weak Imperfect Tense

 

Imperfect tense is often times modified to create different meanings. Two of the most important are called 1) Weak Imperfect Tense الْخَفِيْفُ الْمُضَارِعُ al-mudaa-ri-ul kha-fee-fu and 2) Hidden Imperfect Tense اَلْمُضَارِعُ الْاَخَفُ al-mu-daa-ri-ul akha-fu

Essentially, in weak imperfect tense, the last alphabet is lightened by either removing a harakah or altogether dropping an alphabet. This is where grouping of the inflections that was done for memorizing becomes handy.

 

1) In group 1, dammahُ on the last alphabet changes to a fathah َ and يَفْعَلُ yaf-a-lubecomes يَفْعَلَ yaf-alaa

2) In group 2, last alphabet ن drops out and يَفْعَلَانِ yaf-alaa-ni becomes يَفْعَلَا yaf-alaa

3) In group 3, no changes occur

 

These changes in an imperfect tense occur when any of the following alphabets show up before it.

 

These Particles and their meanings are explained after the table below. This table takes the imperfect tense through the 14 inflections with particle لَنْ lunwhich has no meaning but causes a strong negative in the sentence as described in column 2.

 

Table 54 – Weak Imperfect Tense

الْخَفِيْفُالْمُضَارِعُal-mu-daa-ri-ul kha-fee-fu Inflections

 

Inflection

number in

order of memorization

Verb

خَفِيْفُ Khafeef Version

 When لَنْ lun used before

 it

1

يَفْعَلُ

 

Yaf-alu

 

He does or will do

يَفْعَلَ لَنْ

 

Lun Yaf-ala

 

He definitely does not or

will not do

2

تَفْعَلُ

 

Taf-alu

 

She does or will do

تَفْعَلَ لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-ala

 

She definitely does not or

will not do

3

تَفْعَلُ

 

Taf-alu

 

You (male) do or

 will do

تَفْعَلَ لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-ala

 

You (male) definitely do

 Not or will not do

4

أَفْعَلُ

 

Af-alu

 

I (male/female) do

 or will do

أَفْعَلَ لَنْ

 

Lun Af-alaa

 

I (male/female) definitely

Do not or will not do

5

نَفْعَلُ

 

Naf-alu

 

We (male/female/, dual/plural) do

or will do

نَفْعَلَ لَنْ

 

Lun Naf-ala

 

We (male/female/, dual/

plural) definitely do not

or will not do

6

يَفْعَلَانِ

 

Yaf-alaa-ni

 

They both (males)

 do or will do

يَفْعَلَا لَنْ

 

Lun Yaf-alaa

 

They both (males)

Definitely do not do or

will not do

7

تَفْعَلَانِ

 

Taf-alaa-ni

 

They both (females)

 do or will do

تَفْعَلَا لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-alaa

 

They both (females)

Definitely do not or will

not do

8

تَفْعَلَانِ

 

Taf-alaa-ni

 

You both (males)

 Do or will do

تَفْعَلَا لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-alaa

 

You both (males)

 Definitely do not or will

Not do

9

تَفْعَلَانِ

 

Taf-alaa-ni

 

You two (females) do

or will do

تَفْعَلَا لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-alaa

 

You both (males)

definitelydo not or

will not do

10

يَفْعَلُوْنَ

 

Yaf-aloo-na

 

They all (males) do

or will do

يَفْعَلُوْا لَنْ

 

Lun Yaf-aloo

 

They all (males) definitely

Do Not or will do

12

تَفْعَلُوْنَ

 

Taf-aloo-na

 

You all (males) do

or will do

تَفْعَلُوْا لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-aloo

 

You all (males) definitely

Do Not or will not do

14

تَفْعَلِيْنَ

 

Taf-alee-na

 

You (female) do

or will do

تَفْعَلِيْ لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-alee

 

You (female) definitely do not

or will not do

11

يَفْعَلْنَ

 

Yaf-al-na

 

They all (females) do

or will do

يَفْعَلْنَ لَنْ

 

Lun Yaf-al-na

 

They all (females)

Definitely do not or

will not do

13

تَفْعَلْنَ

 

Taf-al-na

 

You all (females) do

or will do

تَفْعَلْنَ لَنْ

 

Lun Taf-al-na

 

You all (females)

definitely do

Not or will not do

 

Next questions we will try to answer are why do these changes occur and the changes in the meaning. These changes in an imperfect tense occur when any of the following alphabets show up before it.

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