; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.8 - Weak Imperfect Tense continued

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8.8 - Weak Imperfect Tense continued



a) لَنْ lun(no meaning): When this Particle enters in front of فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ feil-ul mu-daa-ri-yee, it creates a strong negative emphasis and also it associates the Verb to future only. By itself, لَنْ lan does not mean anything. Using the فَعَلَ fa-a-ladie, its imperfect tense is يَفْعَلُ yaf-a-lu which means he does/he is doing/he will do. When used with لَنْ lan, this becomes يَفْعَلَ لَنْlanyaf-alaa which now means he will definitely not do it. Note that يَفْعَلُ yaf-alu became يَفْعَلَ yaf-ala.

 

Some Qur’anic examples would be:

 

1) Aal-e-Imran - Verse 92 لَنْ تَنَالُوا الْبِرَّ... meaning: you will never attain true piety ….

 

2) Al-Baqara - Verse 61

 وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ...

Waiz qul-tum lan nasbi-ru alaa ta-aa-min waa-hi-din

meaning: And [recall] when you said, "O Moses, we can never endure one [kind of] food…”

 

3) An-Nabaa’ - Verse 30

 فَذُوقُوا فَلَن نَّزِيدَكُمْ إِلَّا عَذَابًا

Fa-dhoo-qoofa-lan nazeeda-kum illaa adhaa-ba

meaning: “So taste [the penalty], and never will We increase you except in torment”

 

4) Al-Baqara - Verse 80

 وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً

Wa-qaa-loolan tamas-sa-nan naa-ru illaa aiy-yaa-man ma’doo-da-tan

meaning: And they say, "Never will the Fire touch us, except for a few days.

 

b) اَنْ un (that): When this Particle enters before a الْمُضَارِعِ فِعْلُ feil-ul mu-daa-ri-yi, the Verb gives the meaning of the Source الْمَصْدَرُal-mas-da-ru. Using the فَعَلَ fa-ala die again, its imperfect tense is يَفْعَلُ yaf-aluwhich means he does/he is doing/he will do. When اَنْ un is added in front يَفْعَلَ اَنْ anyaf-al, the meaning now becomes “that he does”.

 

Some examples from al-Qur’an:

 

1) Al-Mulk - Verse 17

 أَن يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا

An yur-sila alai-kum haa-si-ban

meaning: that he would not send against you a storm of stones

 

2) An-Noor - Verse 29

 غَيْرَ مَسْكُوْنَةٍ لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا

Laisa alai-kum ju-naa-hun antad-khu-lu bu-yoo-tan ghai-ra mas-koo-na-tin

meaning: There is no blame upon you for entering houses not inhabited.

 

c) كَيْ  kai (so that): This Particle when added to a فِعلُ الْمُضَارِعِ feil-ulmu-daa-ri-yi, it gives the purpose of the Verb. This construction has been used in al-Qur’an 4-5 times. Some examples are given below:

 

1) An-Nahl - Verse 70

وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا

Wa min-kum man yu-rad-duilaa ar-dha-lil um-u-ru la-kai laa ya-la-mu baa-da ilmin shai-an

Meaning: And among you is he who is reversed to the most decrepit [old] age so that he will not know, after [having had] knowledge, a thing.

 

2) Taa-Haa - Verse 40

 فَرَجَعْنَاكَ إِلَىٰ أُمِّكَ كَيْ تَقَرَّ عَيْنُهَا وَلَا تَحْزَنَ

Fa-raja-naa-ka ilaa um-mi-ka kai taqar-ra ai-nu-haa wa laatah-za-na

Meaning: So, We restored you (referring to Musa when he was a baby) to your mother so thatshe might be content and not grieve.

 

d) اِذَنْ izan (then): This is Particle is usually used as a reaction or response to a previous sentence.

 

Examples from al-Qur’an:

 

1) An-Nisaa - Verse 53

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

Um-la-hum nasee-bum min-al mul-ki fa izal laa yu-too-nannaa-sa na-qee-ra

Meaning: Or have they a share of dominion? Then [if that were so], they would not give the people [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

 

2) An-Nisaa - Verse 67

وَإِذًالَّآتَيْنَاهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Wa izal laa-tai-naa-hum mil-la-dun-naaj-ran azee-ma

And then We would have given them from Us a great reward.

 

e) حَتّٰى hat-ta (until):

This Particle has been used a few times in al-Qur’an. Some examples:

 

1) At-Tur - Verse 45

فَذَرْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ

Fa dhar-hum hat-ta yu-laa-qu yaw-mu-hum

So, leave them until they meet their Day

 

2) Az-Zoukhruf - Verse 83

فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا وَيَلْعَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ

Fa-dhar-hum ya-khoo-zoowa yal-aboo hat-ta yu-laa-qu yaw-mu-hum

So, leave them to converse vainly and amuse themselves until they meet their Day

 

3) An-Noor - Verse 27

لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّىٰتَسْتَأْنِسُوا

Laa tad-khu-loo bu-yoo-tan ghaira bu-yoo-ti-kum hat-ta tas-taa-ni-su

Do not enter houses other than your own houses until you ascertain welcome

 

f) لِ (for, so that): This Particle is used for providing an expected result of the action in the Verb. This is sometimes also called لَامُ الْكَيْ laa-mul kai. Some examples from al-Qur’an:

 

1) Al-Bayyina - Verse 5

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ

Wamaa ami-roo illaa li-ya-bu-dul laha

And they were not commanded except forworshipping Allah

 

2) At-Tawba - Verse 31

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدً

Wamaa ami-roo illaa li-ya-bu-du ilaa-han waa-hi-dan

And they were not commanded except forworshipping one God

 

 

 

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