; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.7 - Forms of three alphabet Root Words

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8.7 - Forms of three alphabet Root Words



Section 8.7 - Forms of three alphabet Root Words اَبْوَابُ الْثُلَاثِيُ الْمُجَرَّدُ

 

الْثُلَاثِيُath-thu-laa-tiliterally means three and الْمُجَرَّدُ al-mujar-radmeans free form (empty/without short vowels). We have used three different free forms of three alphabet root word فعلwhich were فَعَلَ fa-al-a, فَعِلَ fa-al-a, فَعُلَ fa-u-la. Only ع alphabet short vowel or harakah was changed. Remember again thatفعل(Alphabets ل عف) is used as base for defining the location alphabet. For example, in the word سَمِعَ sa-mi-a, alphabet س is the ف location, م alphabet is the ع location and ع is the ل location.

 

You can see that, if we did all combinations of three short vowels for each of the three alphabets, there would be 9 different forms for past tense and another 9 for imperfect tense. Fortunately, only a few of these combinations are used in Arabic and fewer yet which are most commonly used.

The linguists determined that six out of all these combinations are used most commonly. And for non-native readers, a method was devised by using the first alphabet from each of these as an identifier given in a parenthesis to let the reader know which of these six forms a given Verb fits into.

 

These combinations are based on the short vowel of the past tense with fathah, kasrah and dammah with imperfect tense short vowel combination and these are:

 

Table 52 – Forms of three alphabet Root Words اَبْوَابُ الْثُّلَاثِيُ الْمُجَرَّدُ ab-waa-buth-thu-lathi-ul mu-jar-radu

 

 

harakah on عalphabet of Past tense

Past Tense

harakah on ع alphabet of imperfect tense

Imperfect tense

Designation alphabet

Combination 1

fathah on past and fathah/kasrah/dammah on imperfect

1

fathah on ع alphabet

فَتَحَ

 

Fa-ta-ha

fathah on ع

alphabet

يَفْتَحُ

 

Yaf-ta-hu

ف

2

fathah on ع alphabet

ضَرَبَ

Da-ra-ba

kasrah on ع

alphabet

يَضْرِبُ

 

Yad-ri-bu

ض

3

fathah on ع alphabet

نَصَرَ

 

Na-sa-ra

dammah on ع alphabet

يَنْصُرُ

 

Yan-su-ru

ن

Combination 2

kasrah on past and fathah/kasrah/dammah on imperfect

4

kasrah on ع alphabet

سَمِعَ

 

Sa-mi-aa

fathah on ع alphabet

يَسْمَعُ

 

Yas-ma-u

س

5

kasrah on ع alphabet

حَسِبَ

 

Ha-si-ba

fathah on ع alphabet

يَحْسَبُ

 

Yah-sa-bu

ح

Combination 2

dammah on past and fathah/kasrah/dammah on imperfect

6

dammah on ع alphabet

كَرُمَ

 

Ka-ru-ma

dammah on ع alphabet

يَكْرُمُ

 

Yak-ru-mu

ك

 

The crossed-out words are combinations that are not part of the six base line forms and are shown for possibility of other combinations.

 

The advantage of this method is that, since Arabic native writers do not use short vowels or harakahs in their writing, specifying an alphabet tells non-native Arabic readers what form it will fit into. For example, if we use three alphabets غ ف ر or غفر, we would not know what short vowels to use. A native speaker would know how to pronounce it based on the context of the sentence. But if we write (ف)غفر, then we know it is based on form فَتَحَ fa-ta-haand we will pronounce this word as غَفَرَgha-fa-rameaning he forgave, its imperfect would beيغْفِرُ yagh-fi-ru meaning he forgives/he will forgive and its passive would be غُفِرَ ghu-fi-ra meaning he was forgiven.

 

Following are few examples of how to use the forms in adding short vowels:

 

Table 53– Examples of Forms of three alphabet Root Words اَلْأَبْوَابُ الْثُّلَاثِيُ الْمُجَرَّدُal-abwaa-buth-thu-laa-thi-ul mu-jar-rad

 

Root

 

 

Form

بَابٌ

Baa-bun

Past Tense

مَاضي

Maa-di

Imperfect Tense

مُضَارِعٌ

Mu-da-ri-un

Source

مَصْدَرٌ

Mas-dar-un

س ج د

 (ن)

سَجَدَ

Sa-ja-da

He prostrated

يَسْجُدُ

Yas-ju-du

he is prostrating or will prostrate

 

سَجْدًا

Sa-ja-dan

To prostrate

ك ت ب

 (ن)

كَتَبَ

Ka-ta-ba

He wrote

يَكتُبُ

Yak-tu-bu

He is writing/will write

كَتَبًا

Ka-ta-ban

To write

خ ر ج

 (ن)

خَرَجَ

Kha-ra-ja

He went out

يَخْرُجُ

Yakh-ru-ju

He is going out or will go out

خَرَجًا

Kha-ra-jan

To go out

ر ز ق

 (ن)

رَزَقَ

Ra-za-qa

He provided sustenance

يَرْزُقُ

Yar-zu-qu

He is or will provide sustenance

رِزْقًا

Riz-khan

To provide sustenance

ع ل م

 (س)

عَلِمَ

Ali-ma

He knew

يَعْلَمُ

Ya-la-mu

He knows or will know

عِلْمًا

Ali-man

To know

ت ب ع

 (س)

تَبِعَ

Ta-ba-aa

He followed

يَتْبَعُ

Yat-ba-u

He follows or will follow

تَبْعًا

Tab-an

To follow

غ ف ر

 (ض)

غَفَرَ

Gha-fa-ra

He forgave

يَغْفِرُ

Yagh-fi-ru

he forgives or will forgive

مَغفِرَةً/غُفرَانًا

Ghuf-raa-nan

To forgive

م ل ك

 (ض)

مَلَكَ

Ma-la-ka

He owned

يَمْلِكُ

Yam-li-ku

He owns or will own

مَلْكًا /مُلْكًا /مِلْكًا

Mul-kan

To own

ق ط ع

 (ف)

قَطَعَ

Qa-ta-aa

He cut

يَقْطَعُ

Yaq-ta-u

He cuts or will cut

قَطَعًا

Qat-an

To cut

 

م ن ع

 (ف)

مَنَعَ

Ma-na-aa

He prohibited

 

يَمْنَعُ

Yam-na-u

He is prohibiting or will prohibit

مَنَعًا

Man-an

To prohibit

ص ب ر

 (ض)

صَبَرَ

Sa-ba-ra

He was patient

 

يَصْبِرُ

Yas-bi-ru

He is or will be patient

صَبَرًا

Sab-ran

To be patient

ق ب ل

 (س)

قَبِلَ

Qa-bi-la

He accepted

يَقْبَلُ

Yaq-ba-lu

He is accepting or will accept

 قُبُوْلًا

Qu-boo-lan

To accept

 

ن ز ل

 (ض)

نَزَلَ

Na-za-la

He came down

يَنْزِلُ

Yan-zi-lu

He is coming down or will come down

نُزُوْلًا

Nu-zoo-lan

To come down

 

ش ف ع

 (ف)

شَفَعَ

Sha-fa-aa

He enclosed

يَشفَعُ

Yash-fa-u

He encloses or will enclose

شَفَاعَةً

Sha-faa-atan

To enclose

ض ع ف

 (ك)

ضَعُفَ

Da-u-fa

He was weak

 

يَضْعُفُ

Yad-u-fu

He is or will be weak

ضَعِيْفًا

Da-ee-fan

To be weak

ش ه د

 (س)

شَهِدَ

Sha-hi-da

He bore witness

يَشْهَدُ

Yash-ha-du

He bears or will bear witness

شَهِيْدًا

Sha-hee-dan

To witness

ك س ر

 (ض)

كَسَرَ

Ka-sa-ra

He broke

يَكْسِرُ

Yak-si-ru

He breaks or will break

كَسْرًا

Kas-ran

To break

ح م د

 (س)

حَمِدَ

Ha-mi-da

He praised

يْحْمَدُ

Yah-ma-du

He praises or will praise

حَمْدًا

Ham-dan

to praise

ح ك م

 (ن)

حَكَمَ

Ha-ka-ma

He commanded

يَحْكُمُ

Yah-ka-mu

He commands or will command

حُكْمًا

Huk-man

To command

ك ب ر

 (ك)

كَبُرَ

Ka-bu-ra

He became arrogant

يَكْبُرُ

Yak-ba-ru

He is or will become arrogant

كِبْرًا

Kib-ran

To be arrogant

ر ك ب

 (س)

رَكِبَ

Ra-ki-ba

He rode

يَركَبُ

Yar-ka-bu

He rides or will ride

رُكُوْبًا

Ru-koo-ban

To ride

ن ذ ر

 (ن)

نَذَرَ

Na-dha-ra

He made a pledge

يَنْذُرُ

Yan-dhu-ru

He makes or will make a pledge

نَذرًا / نُذُوْرًا

Nadh-ran

To make a pledge

ض ح ك

 (س)

ضَحِكَ

D-hi-ka

He laughed

يَضْحَكُ

Yad-ha-ku

He laughs or will laugh

ضَحِكًا/ضِحِكًا/ضُحِكًا

Da-hi-kan

To laugh

د خ ل

 (ن)

دَخَلَ

 

Da-kha-la

He entered

 

يَدْخُلُ

Yad-khu-lu

He enters or will enter

دَخْلًا

Dakh-lan

To enter

ر ف ع

 (ف)

رَفَعَ

Ra-fa-aa

He raised

يَرْفَعُ

Yar-fa-u

He raises or will raise

رَفْعًا

Raf-an

To raise

ف ر ح

 (س)

فَرِحَ

 

Fa-ri-ha

He was happy

يَفْرَحُ

Yaf-ri-hu

He is happy or will be happy

فَرْحًا

Far-han

To be happy

ح س ب

 (س)

حَسِبَ

Ha-si-ba

He assumed

يَحسَبُ

Yah-sa-bu

He assumes or will assume

حسْبًا

Has-ban

To assume

ذ ب ح

 (ف)

ذَبَحَ

Dha-ba-ha

He slaughtered

يَذْبَحُ

Yadh-ba-hu

He slaughters or will slaughter

ذَبْحًا

Dhab-han

To slaughter

ع ب د

 (ن)

عَبَدَ

Aba-da

He worshipped

يَعْبُدُ

Ya-bu-du

he worships or will worship

عَبْدًا

Ab-dan

To worship

ص د ق

 (ن)

صَدَقَ

 

Sa-da-qa

He was truthful

يَصْدُقُ

Yad-du-qu

He is or will be truthful

صِدْقًا/ صَدْقًا

 Sad-qan

To be truthful

ذ ه ب

 (ف)

ذَهَبَ

Dha-ha-ba

He went

يَذْهَبُ

Yadh-ha-bu

He goes or will go

ذَهَابًا/ذِهَابًا/مَذْهَبًا

Dha-ha-ban

To go

ح ف ظ

 (س)

حَفِضَ

Ha-fi-za

He protected

يَحفَضُ

Yah-fa-zu

He protects or will protect

حِفْضًا

Hif-dan

To protect

ذ ك ر

 (ن)

ذَكَرَ

Dha-ka-ra

He remembered

يَذْكُرُ

Yadh-ku-ru

He remembers or will remember

ذِكْرًا

Dhik-ran

To remember

ن ع م

 (ن،ف،س)

نَعِمَ

Na-e-ma

He favored

يَنْعَمُ

Yan-a-mu

He is or will be favor

نِعْمَةً

Nay-ma-tan

To favor

غ ف ل

 (ن)

غَفَلَ

Gha-fa-la

He was unmindful

يَغْفُلُ

Yagh-fu-lu

He is or will be unmindful

غَفَلَةً

Ghaf-la-tan

To be unmindful

ت ر ك

 (ن)

تَرَكَ

Ta-ra-ka

He abandoned

 

يَتْرُكُ

Yat-ru-ku

He abandons or will abandon

تَرْكًا

Ta-ra-kan

To abandon

ج م ل

 (ن ،ك)

جَمَلَ

Ja-ma-la

He was beautiful

يَجمُلُ

Yaj-ma-lu

He is or will be beautiful

جَمَالًا

Ja-maa-lan

To summarize, be beautiful

 

 

 

 

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