; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.5 - Emphasis in Imperfect Tense

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8.5 - Emphasis in Imperfect Tense



Section 8.5 - Emphasis in Imperfect Tense تَاكِيْدٌ فِيْ الْفِعْلِ الْمُضَارِعِ takeed fil fil-fei-il mu-daa-ri-yee

 

There are several ways of adding emphasis in imperfect tense. Two of the most used methods are by adding a نُوْنُ الْخَفِيْفَةِ noon-ulkha-fee-fati Light Noon or a نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ noon-uth tha-qee-latiStrong Noon. Light Noon has a Jaz-mun/Sukoon ْ on it and strong noon has a shaddah ّ on it. An emphasis lam-ut ta-keedلَامُ التَّاكيْدِ laam-ut takeediwhich is (لَla) always used with these two noons.

 

A. Light Noon نُوْنُ الْخَفِيْفَةِ noon-ul kha-fee-fati

 

This noon is used for light emphasis. It is not used very much in al-Qur’an but is given here for completeness. There are only 8 inflections and these are given below:

 

Single:

 

           لَيَفْعَلَنْlayaf-al-an meaning he will surely do it

              لَتَفْعَلَنْla taf-al-anmeaning she will surely do it

           لَتَفْعَلَنْla taf-al-anmeaning You (male) will definitely do it

           لَتَفْعَلِنْla taf-al-inmeaning You (female) will definitely do it

           لَأَفْعَلَنْla-af-alan 1st person single male/female meaning I will definitely do it

 

            Dual/Plural (1st person):

 

            لَنَفْعَلَنْ la-naf-al-an Dual/plural 1st person meaning We (males or females) will definitely do it

 

            Plural:

 

  لَيَفْعَلُنْlayaf-al-un 3rdperson Single male meaning They (males) will definitely do it

           لَتَفْعَلُنْla-taf-al-un 2nd person single male meaning You (males) will definitely do it

 

Examples:

 

1) لَئِن لَّمْ يَفْعَلْ مَا آمُرُهُ لَيُسْجَنَنَّ وَلَيَكُونًامِّنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ

La-in lam yaf-al maa aa-ma-ru-hu la-yus-ja-nan-na wa laa yakoo-nan min-as-saghi-reen

12:32 Now, however, if he does not do what I bid him, he shall most certainly be imprisoned, and shall most certainly find himself among the despised!

 

2) كَلَّا لَئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ

Kal-laa la-il lum yan-tahi la-nas-fa-un bin-naa-si-ya-ti

96:15 Nay, if he desists not, We shall most surely drag him down upon his forehead 

 

 

B. Strong Noon نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ noon-uth-thaq-qeela-ti

 

This noon is used for strong emphasis. It is used extensively in al-Qur’an. Following are the 14 inflections using فَعَلَ fa-a-la die.

 

Table 49 فَعَلَ(fa-aa-la) Inflections with Strong Noon نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ noon-us sa-qee-lati

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

لَيَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-yaf-alan-

na

6

لَيَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-yaf-alaa-

ni

10

لَيَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-yaf-alun-

na

Female

2

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-alan-

na

7

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-alaan-

ni

11

لَيَفْعَلْنَانِّ

 

La-yaf-al-naan-

ni

Present

2nd person

Male

3

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-alan-

na

8

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-alaan-

ni

12

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-a-lun-

na

female

14

لَتَفْعَلِينَّ

 

La-taf-alee

-na

9

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-alaan-

ni

13

لَتَفْعَلْنَانِّ

 

La-taf-al-naan-

ni

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

لَأَفْعَلُنَّ

 

 

La-af-alan-na

5

لَنَفْعَلَنَّ

 

 

La-naf-alan-na

 

 

Following Table gives the meaning of each of these as before:

 

Table 50 – Hidden pronouns in Imperfect Tense

 

Inflection number

Verb

Meaning

pronoun

hidden

 in

 the Verb

1

لَيَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La yaf-alan-na

He most definitely does

 or will do

هُوَ

 

Hu-a

He

2

لَتَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La taf-ala-na

She most definitely does

 or will do

هِيَ

 

Hee-ya

She

3

لَتَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La taf-alan-na

You (male) most

definitely do or will do

اَنْتَ

 

an-ta

You (male)

4

لَأَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La taf-ala-na

 

I (male/female) most definitely do or will do

اَنَا

 

anaa

I (male/ female)

5

لَنَفْعَلَنَّ

 

La-naf-alan-na

We (male/female/, dual/plural) most

definitely do or will do

نَحْنُ

 

Nah-nu

We (male/female, dual/plural)

6

لَيَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-yaf-alaan-ni

They both (males) most definitely do or will do

هُمَا

 

Hu-maa

They

both

(males)

7

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-alaan-ni

They both (females) most

definitely do or will do

هُمَا

 

Hu-maa

They

both (females)

8

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-alaan-ni

You both (males) most definitely do or will do

اَنْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa

You both (male)

9

لَتَفْعَلَانِّ

 

La-taf-alaan-ni

You two (females) most definitely do or will do

اَنْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa

You both (female)

10

لَيَفْعَلُنَّ

 

 

They all (males) most definitely do or will do

هُم

 

hum

They all (males)

11

لَيَفْعَلْنَانِّ

 

La-yaf-al-naan-ni

They all (females) most definitely do or will do

هُنَّ

 

Hun-na

They all (females)

12

لَتَفْعَلُنَّ

 

La-taf-alun-na

You all (males) most

definitely do or will do

اَنْتُمْ

 

An-tum

You all

 (male)

13

لَتَفْعَلْنَانِّ

 

La-taf-al-naan-

ni

You all (females) most definitely do or will do

اَنْتُنَّ

 

An-tum

You all (females)

14

لَتَفْعَلِنَّ

 

la-taf-alin-na

You (female) most

 definitely do or will do

اَنْتِ

 

An-tee

You

(female)

 

 

 

Examples of Noon-us Saqeela-ti نُوْنُ الثَّقيْلَةِ

 

1) ثُمَّ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيْمِ

Thum-ma la-tus-alun-na yaw-mai-zin anin naeem

102:8 and on that Day you will most surely be called to account for the blessings of life!

 

2) ثُمَّ لَتَرَوُنَّهَا عَيْنَ الْيَقِينِ

Thum-ma la-tara-wun-na-haa ay-nal yaqeen

102:7 In the end you will indeed, most surely, behold it with the eye of certainty

 

3) لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

La-tar-ka-bun-na tab-qan an taba-qi

84:19 [even thus, O men] are you bound to move; onward from stage to stage.

 

4) لَتَرَوُنَّ الْجَحِيمَ

La-tara-wun-nal ja-heem

102:6 you would indeed, most surely, behold the blazing fire (of hell)!

 

5) وَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّإِلاَّ وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

Wa-laa-tamu-tun-na illaa wa antum mus-li-moon

3:102 … and do not allow death to overtake you unless you have surrendered yourselves unto Him.

 

6) .. فَلاَ تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Fa-laa takoon-anna min-al mum-ta-reen

2:147 … Be not, then, among the doubters:

 

 

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