; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.2/8.3- Negative & Present Imperfect Tense

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8.2/8.3- Negative & Present Imperfect Tense



 

Section 8.2 – Negative in Imperfect Tense

 

To make a negative sentence in present or future, لَا la is used commonly. For example,

 

1) اَعْبُدُ aa’bu-dumeans I worship (inflection number 4). To make it negative we add a لَا laa in front and the sentence becomesلَا اَعْبُدُ which means I do not worship.

In surah al-kaafi-roon “لَا اَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُوْنَlaa aa’bu-du maa taa’bu-doon meaning I do not worship what you worship.

 

2) يَهْدِيْ yah-dee means he guides (inflection number 1) and لَا يَهْدِيْ laa yah-dee means he does not guide.

In surah al-Saff, Allah says: وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِيَ الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ wal-lahu laa yah-di-yal qaw-maz-zaa-li-mee-na mean “and Allah does not guide the wrongdoers.

 

3) يَعْلَمُ Yaa-la-mumeans he knows and لَا يَعْلَمُ laa yaa-la-mu means he does not know.

 

4) Al-Baqara - Verse 286 لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ laa yu-kal- liful-la-humeaning Allah does not burden.

 

Sometimes مَا maa is also used as in مَا يَعْلَمُ maa yaa-la-mu which means he does not know or he will not know.

 

 

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Section 8.3 – فِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعِ Imperfect Tense Specific to مَاضِيْ Present Tense

 

As you know by now, imperfect tense is used for present, present continuous or future tense. To make it specific to present only, Particle لَ (Laam-ut- takeed) is used in its front. For example:

1) يَنْصُرُ yan-su-ru means He helps or he will help. When Lam-ut- takeed is added, لَيَنْصُرُ la-yan-su-ru now means he helps or he is helping. In surah al-Hajj verse 40, Allah says وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ wa la-yan-su-run-nal-laa-hu mun yan-su-ru-humeaning “Allah surely helps those who help Him (His cause)”. The emphasis here comes from the alphabet (نَّ) with shaddah on it. This will be covered later in this book.

2) يَكْتُبُ yak-tu-bu mean he writes or will write. لَيَكْتُبُ la-yak-tu-bumeans he definitely writes and future is not part of it any more.

 

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