; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 8.1 - Active Voice Imperfect Tense Continued

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8.1 - Active Voice Imperfect Tense Continued



Table 44 يَفَعِلُ (yaf-i-lu) Inflections

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd

person

Male

1

يَفْعِلُ

 

Yaf-ilu

 

6

يَفْعِلَانِ

 

Yaf-ilaa

-ni

10

يَفْعِلُوْنَ

 

Yaf-iloo-

na

Female

2

تَفْعِلُ

 

Taf-ilu

 

7

تَفْعِلَانِ

 

Taf-ilaa

-ni

11

يَفْعِلْنَ

 

Yaf-il-na

Present

2nd

person

Male

3

تَفْعِلُ

 

Taf-ilu

 

 

8

تَفْعِلَانِ

 

Taf-ilaa

-ni

12

تَفْعِلْوْنَ

 

Taf-i-loo-

na

female

14

تَفْعِلِينَ

 

Taf-i-lee

-na

 

9

تَفْعِلَانِ

 

Taf-

ilaa-ni

 

13

تَفْعِلْنَ

 

Taf-il-

na

Speaker

1st

person

Male/

female

4

أَفْعِلُ

 

Af-ilu

 

5

نَفْعِلُن

 

Naf-ilu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 45 يَفَعُلُ (yaf-u-lo) Inflections

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd 

 person

Male

1

يَفْعُلُ

 

Yaf-u-

lu

 

6

يَفْعُلَانِ

 

Yaf-

ulaa-ni

10

يَفْعُلُوْنَ

 

Yaf-uloo-na

Female

2

تَفْعُلُ

 

Taf-ulu

 

7

تَفْعُلَانِ

 

Taf-

ulaa-ni

11

يَفْعُلْنَ

 

Yaf-ul-na

Present

2nd 

person

Male

3

تَفْعُلُ

 

Taf-ulu

 

8

تَفْعُلَانِ

 

Taf-

ulaa-ni

12

تَفْعُلْوْنَ

 

Taf-uloo-

na

female

14

تَفْعُلِينَ

 

Taf-

ulee-na

 

9

تَفْعُلَانِ

 

Taf-

ulaa-ni

 

13

تَفْعُلْنَ

 

Taf-ul-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

أَفْعُلُ

 

Af-ulu

 

5

نَفْعُلُ

 

Naf-ulu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As in past tense, there are Verbs in Arabic which use one of these three forms for imperfect tense.

Please note that a past tense which has (عَ) does not necessarily have (عَ) in imperfect tense. It can be from any of the three (عَ،عِ،عُ) forms.

 

 

Table 46 - Examples of Verbs that use فَعَلَ fa-aa-la die

 

Past

 tense

Pronunciation

Meaning

Imperfect

tense

Pronunciation

Meaning

ذَهَبَ

Za-ha-ba

He went

يَذهَبُ

Yaz-ha-bu

He is going or will go

خَرَجَ

Kha-ra-ja

He went out

يَخْرُجُ

Ya-kh-ru-ju

He is going

out or will go out

دَخَلَ

Da-kha-la

He entered

يَدْخُلُ

Yad-khu-lu

He is

entering or

 will enter

ضَرَبَ

Za-ra-ba

He hit

يَضْرِبُ

Yad-ri-bu

He is hitting

or will hit

جَلَسَ

Ja-la-sa

He sat

يَجْلِسُ

Yaj-li-su

He is sitting or will sit

سَجَدَ

Sa-ja-da

He prostrated

يَسْجُدُ

Yas-ji-doo

He is

prostrating

or will

prostrate

عَقَلَ

A-qa-la

He

Comprehend-

ed

يَعْقِلُ

Ya-qi-lu

He is comprehend-

ing or will comprehend

غَفَلَ

Gha-fa-la

He was not paying

attention

يَغْفِلُ

Yagh-fi-lu

He is not or

will not pay attention

حَشَرَ

Ha-sha-ra

He was

gathered

يَحْشُرُ

Yah-shu-roo

He is

gathering or

 will gather

رَفَعَ

Ra-fa-aa

He was

raised

يَرْفَعُ

Yar-fa-oo

He is or will be raised

عَبَدَ

A-ba-da

He

worshipped

يَعْبُدُ

Ya-bu-doo

He is

worshipping

or will

worship

فَتَحَ

Fa-ta-ha

He opened

يَفْتَحُ

Yaf-ta-hu

He is

opening

or will open

صَبَرَ

Sa-ba-ra

He was

patient

يَصْبِرُ

Yas-bi-ru

He is or will

be patient

غَفَرَ

Gha-fa-ra

He forgave

يَغْفِرُ

Yagh-fi-ru

He forgives

or

 will forgive

جَعَلَ

Ja-a-la

He made

يَجْعَلُ

Yaj-a-lu

He is making

or will make

خَلَقَ

Kha-la-qa

He created

يَخْلُقُ

Yaq-lu-qu

He creates

or

will create

نَفَعَ

Na-fa-a

He profited

يَنْفَعُ

Yan-fa-qu

He is

profiting

or will profit

جَهَدَ

Ja-ha-da

He

endeavored

يَجْهَدُ

Yaj-ha-du

He is

endeavoring

or will

endeavor

بَلَغَ

Ba-la-gha

He reached

يَبْلُغُ

Yab-la-ghu

He is

reaching or

will reach

رَجَعَ

Ra-ja-a

He went

back

يَرْجِعٌ

Yar-ji-u

He is going

back or will

go back

نَجَحَ

Na-ja-ha

He

succeeded

يَنجَحُ

Yan-ha-ju

He is

succeeding

or will

succeed

رَزَقَ

Ra-za-qa

He gave sustenance

يَرْزُقُ

Yar-zu-qu

He is giving

or will give sustenance

نَظَرَ

Na-za-ra

He looked

يَنْظُرُ

Yan-zu-ru

He is looking

or will look

نَزَلَ

Na-za-la

He came

down

يَنْزِلُ

Yan-zi-lu

He is coming down or will come down

صَدَقَ

Sa-da-qa

He was

 truthful

يَصْدُقُ

Yas-du-qu

He is or will

be truthful

كَذَبَ

Ka-za-ba

He lied

يَكْذِبُ

Yak-zi-bu

He is lying

or will lie

شَكَرَ

Sha-ka-ra

He was

thankful

يَشْكُرُ

Yash-ku-ru

He is or will

be thankful

نَقَصَ

Na-qa-sa

He decreased

يَنْقُصُ

Yan-qu-su

He is

decreasing

or will

decrease

تَرَكَ

Ta-ra-ka

He quit

يَتْرُكُ

Yath-ru-ku

He is

quitting or

will quit

 

Table 47- Examples of Imperfect Verbs that use فَعِلَ fa-ila die

 

Past

 tense

Pronunciation

Meaning

Imperfect

tense

Pronunciation

Meaning

قَدِمَ

Qa-di-ma

He brought

يَقْدِمُ

Yaq-di

-mu

He brings or will bring

ضَحِكَ

da-hi-ka

He laughed

يَضْحِكُ

Yad-hi

-kou

He is laughing 

or will laugh

عَلِمَ

a-li-ma

He knew

يَعلَمُ

Ya-la

-mu

He knows or

will know

عَمِلَ

a-mi-la

He acted

يَعْمَلُ

Ya-ma

-lou

He is acting or will act

فَرِحَ

Fa-ri-ha

He was happy

يَفْرَحُ

Yaf-ra-hou

He is or will be happy

سَمِعَ

Sa-mi-a

He listened

يَسْمَعُ

Yas-ma

-ou

He is listening

or will

listen

حَمِدَ

Ha-mi-da

He praised

يَحمَدُ

Yah-ma-dou

He is praising or will

praise

حَسِبَ

Ha-si-ba

He assumed

يحْسِبُ

Yah-si

-bou

He is assuming

or will assume

شَرِبَ

Sha-ri-ba

He drank

يَشرَبُ

Yash-ra-bou

He is drinking

or will drink

حَفِظَ

Ha-fi-za

He memorized

يَحفَظُ

Yah-fa

-zou

He is 

memorizing or

will memorize

رَحِمَ

Ra-hi-ma

He was

merciful

يَرْحَمُ

Yar-ha

-mu

He is merciful or will

be merciful

رَكِبَ

Ra-ki-ba

He was riding

يَرْكَبُ

Yar-ka

-bou

He is riding or will

ride

شَهِدَ

Sha-hi-da

He 

witnessed

يشْهَدُ

Yash-ha-dou

He is witnessing or

will witness

قَبِلَ

Qa-bi-la

He

 accepted

يَقْبَلُ

Yaq-ba

-lou

He is accepting 

or will accept

مَرِضَ

Ma-ri-da

He was ill

يَمْرَضُ

Yam-ra

-dou

He is ill or 

will be ill

 

Table 48 - Examples of Imperfect Verbs that use فَعُلَ fa-ula die

 

Past

 tense

Pronunciation

Meaning

Imperfect

tense

Pronunciation

Meaning

كَرُمَ

Ka-ru-ma

He was

generous

يَكْرُمُ

Yak-ru-moo

He is or will 

be generous

بَعُدَ

Ba-u-da

He got away

يَبْعُدُ

Yab-u-doo

He has gotten

away or will

get

away

قَرُبَ

Qa-ru-ba

He got near

يَقْرُبُ

Yaq-ru-boo

He is near or

will be near

ضَعُفَ

Da-ou-fa

He became

weak

يَضْعُفُ

Yad-u-foo

He is 

becoming

or will 

become weak

ثَقُلَ

Tha-qou-la

He became

heavy

يَثْقُلُ

Yath-qu-lou

He is 

becoming

or will 

become heavy

 

Sentence Examples:

 

شَرِبُوْا الْمَاءَ الْبَارِدَ sha-ri-bul- maa-albaa-ri-du- They drank cold water

 

نَعْبُدُ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعٰالٰى naa-bu-dul lahasub-haa-nahu wa ta-aa’la - We worship Allah (SWT)

 

ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ zau-fat taa-li-bu – (so) weak are the seekers

 

اللهُ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوْبَ Allaa-hu- yagh-fi-ruddhu-noo-ba - Allah (SWT) forgives sins

 

اللهُ يَعْطِيْنَا رِزْقًا Allaa-hu ya’tee-naariz-qan - Allah (SWT) gives us sustenance

 

 

 

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