; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 7.8-13 – Types of Objects أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ

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7.8-13 – Types of Objects أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ



 

Section 7.13 – Types of Objects أَقْسْاْمُ الْمَفْعُوْلِ

 

Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ Fai-lun is a Noun which occurs after a Verb and is associated with the meaning of the Act/Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) and it stands as a subject/actor (مُسْنَدٌ إِلَيْهِ mus-na-dun ilia-hi) for the Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun). For example, “زَيْدٌZai-dun in ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ da-ra-ba Zai-dun meaning Zaid hit.

 

The object which is called an اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf’oolu is the the person or thing on which action is happening. This could be an action on, action for or action with the person or thing which we are calling here a object. There are several kinds of objects as described below.

 

Absolute Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ الْمُطْلَقُ al-maf’ool ul mut-la-qu: This uses a Verbal Source مَصْدَرٌ mas-da-run for the Verb which was used earlier in the sentence and with the same meaning. For example, “ضَرْبًاdar-ban in ضَرَبْتُ ضَرْبًا da-rab-tu dar-ban meaning “I hit him as he should be hit” or “I hit him a lot”. Or “قَيَامًاqayaa-man in قُمْتُ قَيَامًا qum-tuqayaa-man meaning “I stood as one should stand or properly”.

 

Adverb of Time or Place اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ فِيْهِ al-maf’ool-ul fee-hi: This is a Noun for a situation, place or time which the action associated with a Verb occurs. It is sometimes called ظَرْفٌ zar-fun and has two kinds:

1) ظَرْفُ زَمَانٍ zar-fu za-maa-nin or adverb of time: As in “يَوْمَyaw-ma in

صُمْتُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ sum-tu yaw-mal jum-a-ti meaning “I fasted on Friday”.

2) ظَرْفُ مَكَانٍ zar-fu makaa-nin or adverb of place: As in “عِنْدَin-da in

جَلَسْتُ عِنْدَكَ jalas-tu in-da-ka meaning “I sat near you/next to you”.

 

Comitative Object اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ مَعَهٗal-mafool-u ma-a-hoo: This Noun happens after letter (و) where it is for the meaning of “مَعَma-a (with) and it joins the Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-i-lunin its action. For example, “وَالْجُبَّاتِwal-jub-baati in the sentence وَالْجُبَّاتِ الْبَرْدُ جَاءَ jaa-al bar-du wal-jub-baati meaning “cold came with warm coats”. Kasrah comes in the word اَلْجُبَّاتِ al-jub-baati and it is Sound Feminine Plural and it is Accusative nas-bun by Kasrah or you may say جَاءَ الْبَرْدُ وَالْجُبَّةَ jaa-al bar-du wal-jub-ba-ti, (وَ wa) with the meaning of مَعَ ma-a “with” and this makes it easier to understand for a beginner

 

Adverb of Purpose اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ لهٗ al-maf-ulu la-hu: This is the reason why the action of the Verb is happening. For example, “إِكْرَامًاik-raa-man in قُمْتُ إكْرَامًا لِزَيْدٍ qum-tuikraa-man li-Zai-din meaning “I stood up to show respect for Zaid”.

 

The object of a Verb اَلْمَفْعُوْلُ بِهٖ al-maf-ul-u be-he: This is a Noun on which act اَلْفِعْلُ al-fei-luof the Actor/Subject فَاعِلٌ faa-i-lunoccurs. For example, ضَرَبَ زَيْدٌ عَمْرًا da-ra-baZai-dun am-ran meaning “Zaid hit Amr”.

 

 

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