; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 7.7 to 7.11 - Compounds, Prepositions, Negative, Interrogative , Use of (قَدْ qad) in a Verbal Sentence

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7.7 to 7.11 - Compounds, Prepositions, Negative, Interrogative , Use of (قَدْ qad) in a Verbal Sentence



 

Section 7.7 – Compounds in a Verbal Sentence (جُملَةُالْفِعْلِيَةُjum-la-tul fei-li-yatu)

 

Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun) and object الْمَفْعُوْلُ (al-maf’oolun) can also be compound words in a Verbal sentence. For example:

 

1) Mahmoud hit Hamid’s brother:

 ضَرَبَ مَحْمُوْدٌ أَخَا حَامِدٍ (dara-ba mah-mudun akh-aa haa-mi-din).  Here أَخَا حَامِدٍ is a possessive compound. The translation of brother is (أَخُوْ) in the nominative, (أَخَا) in Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and (أَخِيْ) in the genitive. Since the object is always in Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) state, the Mu-daaf which was Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) in possessive compound (أَخُوْ) was changed to accusative (أَخَا).

 

2) Hamid’s brother became happy:

فَرِحَ أَخُو حَامِدٍ (fari-ha akhuHami-din).  Here أَخُو حَامِدٍ is possessive compound and is the actor. Note that this is in Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) state.

 

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Section 7.8 – Prepositions in a Verbal Sentence جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tul fei-li-ya

 

When a preposition (حَرْفُ الجَرِّ har-ful jarri) is used in a Verb sentence, it changes the meaning and there are no fixed rules for this. You will learn the usage by reading and speaking the language. For example,

 

1) وَالصَلَوٰةِ بِالصَّبْرِ وَاسْتَعِيْنُوْا was-ta-yee-nu bis-sab-ri was-salati meaning “And seek help through patience and the prayer.”

2) ذَهَبَ اللهُ بِنُوْرِهِمْ dha-hab-Allahu bi-noo-ri-himmeaning “Allah took away their sight”. Note that (ذَهَبَ dh-ha-ba) means he went but when used with a preposition (بِ) in the object, it took the meaning of took away.

 

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Section 7.9 – Negative (نَفِيٌّنَافِيَةٌ/ nafee-yun/naa-fi-ya-tun) Verbal Sentence

 

To create a negative sentence in the past tense, the Particle (مَاmaa) is added. For example, مَا شَرِبَ maa shari-bameans he did not drink.

 

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Section 7.10 – Interrogative (اِسْتِفْهَامِيَةٌ is-tef-haa-mi-ya-tun) Verbal Sentence

 

All the interrogative Particles described before in Noun chapters can be utilized to change a Verb sentence into an interrogative sentence. For example:

1) لِمَ ضَرَبْتَ زَيْدًا (li-madarab-ta Zaidan) meaning why did you hit Zaid?

2) هَلْ تَشْرَبُ الْمَاءُ (hulltash-ra-bul maa-u) meaning are you drinking water?

 

 

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Section 7.11 – Use of (قَدْ qad) in a Verbal Sentence

 

When the Particle (قَدْ qad) is added in front of the Verb, there are two meanings that are possible:

1) It provides emphasis on the action. For example (قَدْ أَفْلَحَqad-afla-ha) means he definitely found success. Also, oftentimes alphabet ل called لَامُ التَّاكِيْدِ (laa-muttaa-keedi) mean alphabet lam of emphasis is added to further stress the point as in (لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْاِنْسَانَ la-qadkha-laq-nal insaa-na) meaning “We certainly created man” with double emphasis on “certainly” which is not easily translated and sometimes al-Qur’an uses multiple emphasis words which are impossible to translate in other languages.

2) It may also describe the near past as in:

قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلَاةَ qad qaa-mati-salaa-ta which means prayer group has stood up.

 

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