; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 7.6 - pronoun as an Object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf-oo-lu)

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7.6 - pronoun as an Object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf-oo-lu)



 

Section 7.6 – pronoun as an Object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf-oo-lu)

 

We know that the object (الْمَفْعُوْلُ al-maf-oo-lu) is always in the accusative state (نَصْبٌ nas-bun). Therefore, if we need to use a pronoun as an object, we will be using the ones which are in this state. These are always attached pronouns we learned in Table 4. Table 39 below shows the chart for pronoun application using ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba(he hit) as the Verb.

 

Table 39 – pronoun as Object Example

 

ضَرَبَ

 

Da-ra-ba

He hit

ضَرَبَهُ

 

Da-ra-ba-hoo

He hit him

ضَرَبَهُمَا

 

Da-ra-ba-hu-ma

He hit them (both males)

ضَرَبَهُمْ

 

Da-ra-ba-hum

He hit them (all)

ضَرَبَهَا

 

Da-ra-ba-haa

He hit her

ضَرَبَهُمَا

 

Da-ra-ba-huma

He hit them (both females)

ضَرَبَهُنَّ

 

Da-ra-ba-hun-na

He hit them all (females)

ضَرَبَكَ

 

Da-ra-ba-ka

He hit you

ضَرَبَكُمَا

 

 

He hit you both (males)

ضَرَبَكُمْ

 

Da-ra-ba-kum

He hit you all (males)

ضَرَبَكِ

 

Da-ra-ba-ki

He hit you (female)

ضَرَبَكُمَا

 

Da-ra-ba-ku-maa

He hit both of you (females)

ضَرَبَكُنَّ

 

Da-ra-ba-kun-na

He hit all of you (females)

ضَرَبَنِي

 

Da-ra-ba-ni

He hit me (male/female)

ضَرَبَنَا

 

Da-ra-ba-naa

He hit us (male/female/dual/plural)

 

**Note that for speaker, an alphabet (ن) is added before speaker (ي):

 

 (ضَرَبَ da-ra-ba) + (ي yaa) = (ضَرَبَنِيْ da-ra-ba-nee).

 

This is done because the alphabet (ي) usually requires a kasrah(ِ) before it. Therefore, a (ن) is added with a kasrah.This noon is called a Noon of Wiqayah.

 

Other Practices in Verbal Sentence (جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ jum-la-tulfei-liya-tu):

 

1) In inflection number 4 (ضَرَبُوْا da-ra-bu) if a pronoun is an object (هُ hu) then alphabet alif (ا) is dropped:

 

 (ضَرَبُوْا da-ra-bu) + (هُ hu) = (ضَرَبُوْهُ da-bu-hu) meaning he hit me (male/female)

 

2) In inflection number 9 (ضَرَبْتُمْ dab-tum) if a pronoun is used as an object, then an alphabet (و) is added before the pronoun:

 

 (ضَرَبْتُمْ da-rab-tum) + (هُhu) = (ضَرَبْتُمُوْهُ da-rab-tu-mu-hu) meaning you all hit him

 

1)     Normally, the order of a Verbal sentence is Verb, actor/subject, and the object. If the Actor/Subject is present (not hidden as discussed before) and the object is a ضَمِيْرٌ da-mee-run pronoun, then the object is attached to the Verb which changes the order to Verb, object, actor. For example, take the sentence Hamid hit him. In Arabic, this would be ضَرَبَهُ حَامِدٌ.

2)      

حَامِدٌ

+

هُ

+

ضَرَبَ

=

ضَرَبَهُ حَامِدٌ

Hami-dun

 

hu

 

Da-ra-ba

 

Da-ra-ba-hu

Hamidun

Subject/Actor

 

object

 

Verb

 

 

فَاعِلٌ

 

مَفعُوْلٌ

 

فِعْلٌ

 

 

 

3)     Besides the three components described above, there can be other components in a Verbal sentence. They are called Verb associate مُتَعَلَّقُ الْفِعْلِ mu-tal-laq-ul Feili. For example, Zaid sat on a chair. Here, Zaid is the actor, sat is the Verb and on a chair is Verb attachment. The Arabic sentence would be:

 

جَلَسَ زَيْدٌ عَلَى الْكُرْسِىِّ

                       

kur-see

Alal

Zaidun

ja-la-sa

الْكُرْسِىِّ

عَلَى

زَيْدٌ

جَلَسَ

the chair

On

Zaid

Sat

مُتَعَلَّقُ الْفِعْلُ

فَاعِلٌ

فِعْلٌ

Verb associate

Actor/Subject

Verb

 

 

 

***


 

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