; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 7.4 - Forming Verbal Sentence

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7.4 - Forming Verbal Sentence



 

Section 7.4 - Forming Verbal Sentence جُملةُ الْفِعْلِيَةُ (jum-la-tul fei-li-ya-tu)

 

We learned that the base inflection itself can be a sentence by itself since it has a pronoun hidden in it which serves as the Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) which sometimes we will call as the subject.

 

An important rule is that Actor/Subject(فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is always in a Nominative state (رَفْعٌ raf-un).

 

When Actor/Subject (faa-ilun فَاعِلٌ) is explicit/mentioned, then following rules apply:

 

1. The Actor/Subject is a common/indefinite Noun (نَكِرَةٌ naki-ra-tun) then, Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) is always single irrespective of whether the Actor/Subject is single/dual or plural with proper gender.

 

Examples:

 

Any man heard                 سَمِعَ رَجُلٌ (sami-a ra-ju-lun)

Any two men heard          سَمِعَ رَجُلَانِ (sami-a ra-ju-laa-ni)

Men heard                        سَمِعَ رِجَالٌ (sami-a-ri-jaa-lun)

Any woman heard             سَمِعَتْ إمْرَاءَةٌ (sami-at im-raa-a-tun)

Any two women heard     سَمِعَتْ إمْرَاءَتَانِ (sami-atimraa-taa-ni)

women heard                سَمِعَتْ نِسَاءٌ (sami-at nisaa)

 

2) The Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun) is broken plural (جمْعُالْمُكَسَّرِ jam-ul mu-kas-sari) of non-intelligent beings (anything other than humans, angels, jinns) then Verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) is always a single female. Examples:

 

Camels went – ذَهَبَتِ الْجِمَالُ (za-ha-ba-til jimaa-lu)

Female camels went – ذَهَبَتِ النُّقُ (za-ha-ba-tin nuqu)

 

3) If the Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-ilun) is a broken plural (جمْعُ الْمُكَسَّرِ jam-ul mu-kas-sari) of intelligent beings, then verb (فِعْلٌ fei-lun) can again be male or female single. Examples:

 

Men entered: دَخَلَ الرِّجَالٌ (da-kha-lar rijaa-lun) or دَخَلَتِ الرِّجَالٌ (da-kha-la-tirri-jaa-lun)

 

Women entered: دَخَلَتِ النِّسَاءُ dakha-la-tin nisaa-uor دَخَلَ النِّسَاءُ dakha-lanni-saa-u. The first one was دَخَلَتْ النِّسَاءُ and when a word with a jazm at the end is combined with hamzatul wasli of next word, the jazm (ْ) is replaced by a kasrah.

 

Bedouins said: قَالَ الأعْرَابُ (qaa-lala’raa-bu) or قَالَتِ الأعْرَابُ(qaa-latil aa’raa-bu).  The second version is used in al-Qur’an in surah al-Hujuraat.

 

4) If Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is a collective Noun, then again both single male or female (فِعْلٌfei-lun) can be used. For example,

 

Nation conquered: غَلَبَ الْقَوْمُ (ghala-bal qaw-mu) or غَلَبَتِ الْقَوْمُ (ghala-batil qaw-mu)

 

1)     If Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is not a true feminine gender, then also the same rule applies; For example:

 

Sun came out (rose) طلَعَ الشَّمْسُ(tala-ash-sham-su) or الشَّمْسُ طلَعَتِ (tala-atish-sham-su)

 

2)     And finally, if the Verb (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) is a true female gender but there are words between Verb (فِعْلٌfei-lun) and Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-il-un) then also the above rule applies. For example:

 

Fatimah read today: قَرَءَ الْيَوْمَ فَاطِمَةُ (qara-al yaw-ma fati-ma-tu) الْيَوْمَ فَاطِمَةُ قَرَءَتِ or (qara-tilyaw-ma fati-ma-tu)

 

 

 

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