; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 7.3 - Active Voice Perfect Tense (Past)

RC

global site tag

7.3 - Active Voice Perfect Tense (Past)



 

Section 7.3 – Active Voice Past Tense الْفِعْلُ الْمَاضِىُ الْمَعْرُوْفُ

 

Three alphabet Root word ثُلَاثِي مُجَرَّدٌ(thula-thi mujar-ra-dun)

 

As we mentioned before, 99% of Arabic words are based on three alphabet root words. These are called ثُلَاثِىْ مُجَرَّدٌ (thulati mu-jar-radun) meaning three and mujar-rad meaning bare. Remaining 1% are 4 alphabet root words (رُبَاعِىْ rubaa-yee) and five alphabet root words (خُمَاسِىْ khu-maa-si). We will be concentrating on the three-alphabet root word.

 

The three alphabets that are used as standard are (ف faa) (عayn) and (ل laam). An example of a three-alphabet root word is فَعَلَ (fa-a-la).  There are two other forms that are also very common and these are فَعِلَ (fa-eela) and فَعُلَ (fa-oola).  

 

Next, let us study these forms and how they are used. This is probably the most important part of the book and the entire Ilm-us-Sarf (word morphology) is based on this.

 

In Arabic, each Verb is different depending upon whether the act is performed by male or female, single/dual or plural actors, and if the Actor/Subject is absent, present, or speaker. Technically, we should be getting 2x3x3 = 18 combinations. In Arabic, for speaker, dual/plural are the same, so the actual number of combinations is 14. Also, the dual Verb for in cases of absent/present and male/female are the same but are counted and written in the tas-reef. When these are used in a sentence, the context is what decides which ones these are.

 

Inflections of past tense with standard/ generic (ف) (ع) and (ل).

 

Table 33 – Meaning of فَعَلَ (fa-ala) Inflections

 

Inflection number

Verb

Meaning

pronoun hidden in the Verb

1

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-a-la

He did

هُوَ

 

hua

He

2

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-a-la

They both (males) did

هُمَا

 

hu-ma

They both (males)

3

فَعَلَ

 

Fa-a-la

They all (males) did

هُم

 

hum

They all (males)

 

 

 

 

 

4

فَعَلَتْ

 

Fa-a-lat

She did

هِيَ

 

Hee-ya

She

5

فَعَلَتْ

 

Fa-a-lat

They both (females) did

هُمَا

 

Hu-maa

They both (females)

6

فَعَلَتْ

 

Fa-a-lat

They all (females) did

هُمْ

 

hum

They all (females)

 

 

 

 

 

7

فَعَلْتَ

 

Fa-al-ta

You (male) did

اَنْتَ

 

un-ta

You (male)

8

فَعَلْتَ

 

Fa-al-ta

You both (males) did

اَنْتُمَا

 

An-tu-maa

You both (males)

9

فَعَلْتَ

 

Fa-al-ta

You all (males) did

اَنْتُمْ

 

un-tum

You all (males)

 

 

 

 

 

10

فَعَلْتِ

 

Fa-al-ti

You (female) did

اَنْتِ

 

un-tee

You (female)

11

فَعَلْتِ

 

Fa-al-ti

You both (females) did

اَنْتُمَا

 

un-tu-maa

You both (females)

12

فَعَلْتِ

 

Fa-al-ti

You all (females) did

اَنْتُنَّ

 

un-tun-naa

You all (females)

 

 

 

 

 

13

فَعَلْتُ

 

Fa-al-tu

I (male and female) did

اَنَا

 

anaa

I (male and female)

14

فَعَلْنَ

 

Fa-al-naa ا

We (male/female /dual/plural) did

نَحْنُ

 

Nah-nu

We (male/female /dual/plural)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The above Verb was based on the root word فَعَلَ. Similarly, we can do two more tables with root words فَعِلَ and فَعُلَ as shown below.

 

Table 34 فَعِلَ (Fa-ee-la) Inflections

 

 

 

 

single

 

dual

 

plural

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

فَعِلَ

 

Fa-i-la

2

فَعِلَا

 

Fa-i-

laa

3

فَعِلُوْا

 

Fa-i-

loo

Female

4

فَعِلَتْ

 

Fa-i-lat

5

فَعِلَتَا

 

Fa-ila-

taa

6

فَعِلْنَ

 

Fa-il-

na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

فَعِلْتَ

 

Fa-il-ta

8

فَعِلْتُمَا

 

Fa-il-

tu-maa

9

فَعِلْتُمْ

 

Fa-il-

tum

female

10

فَعِلْتِ

 

Fa-il-ti

11

فَعِلْتُمَا

 

Fa-il-

tu-maa

12

فَعِلْتُنَّ

 

fa-il-

tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/female

13

فَعِلْتُ

 

Fa-il-tu

14

فَعِلْنَا

 

Fa-il-naa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Table 35 فَعُلَ (Fa-oo-la) Inflections

 

 

 

 

single

 

dual

 

plural

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

فَعُلَ

 

Fa-u-la

2

فَعُلَا

 

Fa-u-

laa

3

فَعُلُوْا

 

Fa-ul-

loo

 

Female

4

فَعُلَتْ

 

Fa-u-lat

5

فَعُلَتَا

 

Fa-ula-

taa

6

فَعُلْنَ

 

Fa-ul-

na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

فَعُلْتَ

 

Fa-ul-ta

8

فَعُلْتُمَا

 

Fa-ul-

tu-maa

9

فَعُلْتُمْ

 

Fa-ul-

tum

female

10

فَعُلْتِ

 

Fa-ul-ti

11

فَعُلْتُمَا

 

Fa-ul-

tu-maa

12

فَعُلْتُنَّ

 

fa-ul-

tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/female

13

فَعُلْتُ

 

Fa-ul-

tu

14

فَعُلْنَا

 

Fa-ul-naa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Table 36 - Examples of Verbs that use فَعَلَ die

 

ضَرَبَ

 

Da-ra-ba

He hit

خَلَقَ

 

Kha-la-qa

He created

جَعَلَ

 

Ja-ala

He made

غَفَرَ

 

Gh-fa-ra

He forgave

حَشَرَ

 

Ha-sha-ra

He gathered

عَبَدَ

 

Aba-da

He prayed

رَفَعَ

 

Ra-fa-aa

He raised

جَلَسَ

 

Ja-la-sa

He sat

 

Table 37 - Examples of Verbs that use فَعِلَ die

 

سَمِعَ

 

Sa-mi-aa

He listened

فَرِحَ

 

Fa-ri-ha

He became happy

قَبِلَ

 

Qa-bi-la

He accepted

حَمِدَ

 

Ha-mi-da

He praised

رَحِمَ

 

Ra-hi-ma

He showed mercy

حَسِبَ

 

Ha-si-ba

He assumed

حفِظَ

 

Ha-fi-za

He remembered

شَرِبَ

 

Sha-ri-ba

He drank

شَهِدَ

 

Sha-hi-da

He witnessed

 

Table 38 - Examples of Verbs that use فَعُلَ die

 

ثَقُلَ

 

Tha-qu-la

He became heavy

كَثُرَ

 

Ka-thu-ra

He became abundant

شَرُفَ

 

Sha-ru-fa

He became exalted

عَظُمَ

 

Azu-ma

He became great

صَعُبَ

 

Sa-u-ba

He became difficult

ثَقُلَ

 

Tha-qu-la

He became heavy

قَرُبَ

 

Qa-ru-ba

He became near

كَرُمَ

 

Ka-ru-ma

He was generous

ضَعُفَ

 

Da-u-fa

He became weak

بَعُدَ

 

Ba-u-da

He became distant

 

 

 

***

No comments:

Post a Comment