; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 5.10 - Verb-like Particles

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5.10 - Verb-like Particles



 

Section 5.10 - Particles of Verbal Meaning or Verb-like Particles مُشَبَّهَةٌ بِالْفِعْلِ mushab-ba-hatunbil-feili

 

A.     Inna and its Sisters اِنَّ وَ أَخْوَاتُهَا inna-wa-akh-waa-tu-haa

 

The Arabic language has six Particles which are used for emphasis, similarity, “but”, desire, possibility, etc. which will be described next. A noun is used after this particle and it is called the noun of (for example) inna, and then it requires a predicate (الْخَبَرُ)  which provides the state or information regarding the noun.

 

When these Particles are used before a Noun, it causes the noun which is now called the noun of the particle, to go into the accusative state (نَصْبٌ nas-bun) and its predicate (الْخَبْرُ al-kha-ba-ru) into a Nominative state (رَفْعٌ raf-un).

 

Following are some examples of this application:

 

Table 27 - Particles of Verbal Meaning Examples

 

 

Harf

Examples

Meaning

1

اِنَّ

 

In-na

 

Definitely, For sure

اِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

 (innal-laha ma-as saabi-reena)

Definite Allah is with those who are patient

2

اَنَّ

 

un-na

 

Definitely, For sure

اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُوْلُ اللهِ

 (ash-ha-du-anna moham-mada-an ra-sool-Allahi)

I witness that Mohammed (SAW) definitely is a messenger of Allah

3

كَاَنَّ

 

Ka-an-na

 

Like/similar to

كَانَّهُنَّ الْيَاقُوْتٌ

 (ka-anna hunna yaa-qoo-tun)

They (females) are like sapphire

4

لٰكِنَّ

 

Laa-kin-na

 

But

لٰكِنِ الَّذِيْنَ اَتَّقُوْا رَبَّهُمْ

 (laa-kinil-ladhi-nat-ta-qu rab-ba-hum)

But those who fear their Lord

5

لَيْتَ

 

Lai-ta

 

wish

يَا لَيْتَنِىْ كُنْتُ تُرَابًا

Yaa laita-ni kun-tu tu-raaban)

Oh, I wish I was dust.

6

لَعَلَّ

 

La-al-la

 

perhaps

لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُوْٕنَ

 (la-alla-kum tuf-li-hoona)

Perhaps you (all) will be successful

 

Note that Particles of Verbal Meaning are also combined with prepositions. Some examples would be اِنَّهُم(inna-hum) meaning definitely they, كَانَّهُنَّ (ka-anna-hun-na) meaning They (females) are like لَيْتَنِىْ (lai-tani) meaning I wish, and لَعَلَّكُمْ (la-alla-kum) meaning perhaps you (all).

 

A.     Inna (اِنَّ) /In-na-na (اِنَّنَا) / In-ni (اِنِّىْ) /In-naa (اِنَّا)

 

These Particles when combined with pronouns for the speaker, some allowances and changes may occur as shown in the following:

 

1) from left to right, اِنَّ (in-na) + اَنَا(anaa) = اِنِّىْ (in-ni) meaning “definitely/surely I”.

2) اِنَّ (in-na) + نَحْنُ (nah-nu) = اِنَّنَا (in-na-na) can also be اِنَّا meaning “definitely/surely we”.

 

Also, note that اِنَّ (in-na) is always used before a Noun and اَنَّ (an-na) is used after a Noun/Verb. That is the only difference and meaning remains the same.

 

 

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