; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9.2 Active Particles

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9.2 Active Particles



 

Section 9.2 - Active Particles حُرُوْفُ الْعَامِلةِ hu-roof-ul aa-mi-la-ti

 

A.     Particles that give Nominative  رَفْعٌ raf-un to its Noun

 

مَا maa and لَا laa are both similar to لَيْسَ(lai-sa) (This incomplete Verb will be introduced later) and act similar to it, as you can say مَا زَيْدٌ قَائماً (maa Zai-dunqaa-i-man) meaning “Zaid is not standing” and لَا عَمْرٌو حَاضِرًا “meaning Amr is not present” in which زَيْدٌ Zaid-un andعَمْرٌو (um-run) are Nouns of مَا maa and لَا laa, and قَائمًا (qai-man) and حَاضِرًا(haa-zi-ran) are their Predicates.

 

B.     Particles that give Accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun to its Noun

 

1.     These are 6 Particles Resembling a Verb حُرُوْفُ الْمُشَبَّهَةِ بِالْفِعْلِ (Huroof-ul mushab-baha-tibil feili):

 

a.   إِنَّ in-na meaning “without a doubt/ definitely” used at the beginning of a Nominative sentence

b. أَنَّ an-na meaning “without a doubt” used in the middle of a sentence

c. كَأنَّ ka-an-na meaning “like/similar”

d. لٰكِنَّ laa-kin-na meaning “but”

e. لَيْتَ lai-ta meaning “(I) wish/would that”

f. لَعَلَّ la-al-la meaning “perhaps”

 

These Particles are entered on اَلْمُبْتَدَأُ al-mub-ta-daa-uwhich is then given the name Noun of the Subject اَلْمُبْتَدَاءُ al-mub-ta-daa-u and the Predicate is continued to be called its Predicate اَلْخَبَرُalkha-ba-ru. And Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) status is given to its Noun and Nominative رَفْعٌ(raf-un) status is given to its Predicate as in إِنَّ زَيْدًا قَائمٌ in-na Zai-dan qaa-i-mun.

إِنَّin-naand أَنَّ an-na are both used for emphasis and affirmation التَّحْقِيقُ وَ التَّاكِيْدُ(at tah-qee-qu wat takee-du), كَأَنَّ kaa-na for pointing to Similarity, لٰكِنَّ laa-kin-nafor Coordinating Conjunction/ Connective, لَيْتَ (lai-ta) for Desire, and لَعَلَّ (la-al-la) for Possibility.

 

2.     Vocative Particles حُرُوْفُ النِّدَاءِ (huroof-un nidaa) which are 5 in number: يا yaa, أَيَا ayaa, هَيَا ha-yaa, أَي ay’, أَ aa. Last one is called اَلْهمْزَةُالْمَفْتُوْحَةُ(al-hamzah-tul maf-too-ha-tu). These Particles give Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) status for the addressee مُنَادٰى(mu-naa-da) when it is a Possessed مُضَافٌ(mu-daaf) part of the Possessive Compound اَلمُرَكَّبُ الإِضَافِيْ al-mu-rak-kab-ul idaa-fi as in يَا عَبْدَ اللهِ (yaa abdal-laahi).  This is true even if it resembles a Possessed مُضَافٌ mu-daaf part of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ اَلْمُرَكَّبُ al-mu-rak-kab-ul idaa-fi as in يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلًا (yaa tale-an jibil-lan) meaning “O mountain climber”, or is an Indefinite Noun نَكِرَةٌ naki-ra-tunwhich is undetermined .نَكِرَةٌ غَيْرَ مُعَيَّنَةٍ (naki-ra-tun ghairamo-ayya-natin) as in a blind person saying the following:

 يَارَجُلً خُذْ بِيَدِيْ (khudh biyadi yaa raju-lan) meaning “O man, hold me by my hand”.

 

When the addressee is a singular, it is given the status of Nominative رَفْعٌ (raf-un) as in زَيْدُ يَاyaa Zai-du, زيْدَانِ يَا yaa Zai-daa-ni, مُسْلِمُوْنَ يَا yaa mus-li-moona, مُوْسٰى يَا yaa Moosa, and قَاضِيْ يَا yaa qaa-di.

أَيayeis for addressees who arenear and أَيَا ayaa, هَيَا hayaa are for addressees who are far and يَا yaais usually for addressees both near and far.

C.     Particles that give Genitive جَرٌّ jarr-un to its Noun

 

These are 17 Genitive Particles حُرُوْفُ الْجَرِّ hu-roof-ul jarri:

 

1) (ب) اَلْبَاءُ2) مِنْ 3) اِلٰى 4) حَتّٰى 5) فِي 6) (ل) اَللَّامُ 7) رُبَّ

8) (وَ) وَاوُ الْقَسْمِ 9) (تَ) تَاءُ الْقَسْمِ 10) عَنْ 11) عَلٰى

12) كَ كَافُ التَّشْبِيْهِ13) مُذْ 14) مُنْذُ 15) حَاشَا 16) خَلَا 17) عَدَا

 

Table 63 - Genitive جَرٌّjarr-un Particles Meaning and Examples

 

1

2

3

4

5

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

اَلْبَاءُ

 

baa

مِنْ

 

min

اِلٰى

 

ilaa

حَتّٰى

 

Hat-taa

فِي

 

fee

Meaning

With

From

To, Towards

Until

In

Examples

بِالْقَلَمِ

 

Bil-qalami

مِنْ مَكَّةَ

 

mim-makka-tah

اِلٰى الْمَسْجِدِ

 

Ilal-masjidi

 

حَتّٰي حِيْنٍ

 

Hat-ta heen

فِي الْمَسْجِدِ

 

Fil-masjidi

Example Meaning

With pen

From Mecca

Towards masjid

Until a fixed time

In masjid

 

 

 

6

7

8

9

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

ل

 

laam

رُبَّ

 

Rub-baa

وَاوُ الْقَسَمِ

 

Waa-ul-qas-mi

تَاءُ الْقَسَمِ

 

Taa-ul qas-mi

Meaning

For

Some, a bit

Letter وَ for oath

Letter تَ for oath

Examples

لِزَيْدٍ

 

li-Zaidin

رُبَّ ضَارَّةٍ نَافِعَةَ

 

Rub-ba daar-ratin naa-fiah

وَاللهِ

 

Wal-lahi

تَاللهِ

 

Tal-lahi

Example Meaning

For Zaid

A bit harmful or useful

By Allah

By Allah

 

 

 

10

11

12

13

Genitive جَرٌّ Particle

عَنْ

 

un

عَلٰى

 

alaa

كَافُ التَّشْبِيهِ

 (كَ)

 

Kaaf-ut tash-beehi

مُذْ

 

muz

Meaning

From

On, at

Like

From

Examples

عنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ

 

Un-abee Huraira-ta

عَلٰى اَلْعَرْشِ

 

Alal- arshi

كَالْقَمَرِ

 

Kal-qamari

مَا رَأَيْتُهُ مُذْ يَوْمِ اَلُجُمُعَةِ

 

Maa raya-tu-hu muz yaw-mil jumaa

Example Meaning

From Abi Hurairah

On the sky

Like moon

I did not see him since Friday

 

 

 

14

15

16

17

Genitive Particle

جَرٌّ

مُنْذُ

 

Mun-zu

حَاشَا

 

Haa-shaa

خَلَا

 

Kha-laa

عَدَا

 

adaa

Meaning

Ago, with etc.

Forbid, preserve

Had passed, meet in private, be or become empty

Except

Examples

مَا رَأَيْتُ مُنْذُ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ

 

Maa raya-tu-hu mun-zu yawmil jumaa

حَاشَا لِلّٰهِ

 

Haa-shaa lil-lahi

--

--

Example Meaning

I did not see him from Friday onwards

 

Allah forbid or, Allah preserve us

--

--

 

These Particles when used with a Noun make it Genitive جَرٌّ jar-run by changing the harakah to kasrahof the last letter as in اَلْمَالُ لِزَيْدٍ (al-maa-lu li-Zaidin).

 

D.    Particles that give Jussive state جَزْمٌ (jaz-mun) to its (Feil)        

 

There are Particles that give Jussive جَزَمٌ jaz-munstatus to Imperfect Tense مُضَارِعٌ. These are five:

لَمْlum, لَمَّا lum-maa, لامُ اَلْأَمْرِ lam-ul amr, لَاءُ النَّهْيِ laa-un nahee, إِنْ الشَّرْطِيَةُ in-nal shar-ti-ya

Examples and Meaning:

لَمْ يَنْصُرْlumyan-sur - He did not Help

لَمَّا يَنْصُرْ lum-maa yan-sur - He has not helped yet           

وَلِيَنْصُرْwa-li-yan-sur- He should help

لَا تَنْصُرْlaa-tan-sur- Do not help

إِنْ تَنْصُرْ أَنْصُرْ intan-sur an-sur - If you help, I will help

إِنْenters in two sentences as in إِنْ تَضْرِبْ أَضْرِبْ (in tad-rib ad-rib) meaning “if you strike, I will strike”. The first sentence is named Condition شَرْطٌ(shar-tun) and second sentence is called Response جَزاءٌ(jaz-aa). and إِنْ in-na gives the meaning of future Tense مُضَارِعٌ(mu-daa-ri-un) even though it is entered on a past tense. For example,

ضَرَبْتُ ضَرَبْتَ إِنْ(in zarab-ta zarb-tu) meaning “if you strike, I will strike”. Here Jussive جَزَمٌ (jaz-mun) sign is assumed hidden because the past tense is not flexible.

 

E. لَا لِنَفْيُ الْجِنْسِ La Li-Nafi-ul Jinsi

 

لَا La Li-Nafi-ulJinswhich is used for elimination of all things of a kind نَفْيُ الْجِنْسِ (nafi-ul jinsi) and its Noun is Accusative نَصْبٌ (nas-bun) and its Predicate الْخَبَرُ al-kha-baru is Nominative رَفْعٌ raf-un. Its Noun is usually the Possessed مُضَافٌ mu-daaf-unpart of the Possessive Compound الْإِضَافِيُّ  اَلْمُرَكَّبُ al-mu-rak-kab-ul idaafi time as in لَا غُلَامَ رَجُلٍ مَوْجُوْدٌ فِي الدَّارِ(laa ghu-laama rajuli maw-joo-dun fid-daari) meaning “there is no servant of a man present in the house”. غُلَامَ ghu-laa-ma here is Accusative نَصْبٌ nas-bun.

 

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