; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/12.5 - Form IV. إِفْعَالًا if-aalan

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9/12.5 - Form IV. إِفْعَالًا if-aalan



Section 12.5 - Form IV. إِفْعَالًا if-aalan

 

The first one is called إِفْعَالًا(If-‘aalan).  The numbers of alphabets are always counted in the past tense. Past tense of this form is أَفْعَلَ af-‘a-laa and imperfect tense is يُفْعِلُ yuf-‘i-lu and its source Masdar is إِفْعَالًا if-‘aa-lan.  Note that beginning hamzah here is not a hamzah-tul Wasli ("connecting hamzah") هَمْزَةُ الْوَصْلِ. It is the (hamzah-tulQat-ee) disconnecting hamzah الْقَطْع هَمْزَةُ and is always pronounced.

 

The benefit of this form is that it changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to a causative action or in other words from intransitive to transitive. For example, نَزَلَ na-za-lato أَنْزَلَ an-za-la. نَزَلَ na-za-la means to descend/ comedown. When changed to أَنْزَلَ an-za-la, it means to bring down gradually.

This is the most frequently used form in Al-Qur’an. The inflections for this and other augmentations are processed exactly as we did for the trilateral roots as shown in the table below:

 

Table 75 - Form IV Past tense أَفْعَلَ (af-a-la) Inflections

 

 

 

 

single

 

dual

 

Plural

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

أَفْعَلَ

 

Af-‘ala

2

أَفْعَلَا

 

Af-‘alaa

 

3

أَفْعَلُوْا

 

Af-‘aloo

Female

4

أَفْعَلَتْ

 

Af-‘alat

5

أَفْعَلَتَا

 

Af-‘al-

taa

 

6

أَفْعلْنَ

 

Af-‘al-

na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

أَفْعَلْتَ

 

Af-‘al-

ta

8

أَفْعَلْتُمَا

 

Af-‘al-

tu-maa

9

أَفْعَلْتُمْ

 

af-‘al-

tum

 

female

10

أَفْعَلْتِ

 

Af-‘al-ti

11

أَفْعَلْتُمَا

 

Af-‘al-

tu-maa

12

أَفْعَلْتُنَّ

 

Af-‘al-

tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/female

13

أَفْعَلْتُ

 

Af-‘al-

tu

14

أَفْعَلْنَا

 

Af-‘al-naa

 

Table 76 Form IV Imperfect Tense يُفَعِلُ yuf-ee-lu Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

single

 

dual

 

plural

Absent

3rd

person

Male

1

يُفْعِلُ

 

Yuf-‘i-

lu

6

يُفْعِلَانِ

 

Yu-‘i-

laa-ni

10

يُفْعِلُوْنَ

 

Yuf-‘i-

loo-na

Female

2

تُفْعِلُ

 

Tuf-‘i-

lu

7

تُفْعِلَانِ

 

Yuf-‘i-

laa-ni

11

يُفْعِلْنَ

 

Yuf-‘il-

na

Present

2nd

person

Male

3

تُفْعِلُ

 

Tuf-‘ilu

8

تُفْعِلَانِ

 

Tuf-‘il-

laan-ni

12

تُفْعِلْوْنَ

 

Tuf-‘i-loo-

na

female

14

تُفْعِلِينَ

 

Tuf-‘ilee-na

9

تُفْعِلَانِ

 

Tuf-‘i-

laa-ni

13

تُفْعِلْنَ

 

Tuf-‘il-

na

Speaker

1st

person

Male/

female

4

اُفْعِلُ

 

Uf-‘i-

lu

 

5

نُفْعِلُ

 

Nuf-‘i-lu

 

Table 77 – Form IV أَفْعَلَ/ يُفَعِلُ af-a-la/yuf-i-lu Examples

 

Qur’anic Example

four alphabet Form IV word and meaning

three alphabet root word and meaning

Three-alphabet root

Al-Baqara - Verse 153

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ

 

O you who have believed, seek help through patience and prayer

آمَنَ/ يُؤْمِنُ/ إِيْمَانًا

 

aa-ma-na/yu-mi-nu/ee-maa-nan

to

 

believe/make safe/give security/ listen/accept

أَمِنَ/ يَأْمَنُ/ أَمْنًا،أَمَانًا

 

aa-mina/yaa-ma-nu/am-nan, amaa-nan

 

to be safe / feel safe / secure

ا م ن

 (ك،س)

 

Al-Baqara - Verse 269

 

يُؤْتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَاءُ

 

He gives wisdom to whom He wills

آتٰى/ يُؤْتِيْ/ إِيْتَاءً

 

aa-taa/yu-tee/ee-taa-an

 

to give /bestow (with responsibilities / temporary)

أَتَىٰ/ يَأْتِيْ/ إِتْيَانًا

 

a-taa/yaa-ti-it-yaa-nan

 

to come/

approach/ commit /attack / invade/take over

ا ت ي

 (ض)

 

Al-Qadr - Verse 1

 

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ

 

Indeed, We sent the Qur'an down during the Night of Decree

أَنْزَلَ/ يُنْزِلُ/ إِنْزَالًا

 

An-za-la/yun-zi-lu/in-zaa-lan

 

to send (something) down

نَزَلَ/ يُنْزِلُ/ نُزُوْلًا

 

Na-za-la/yun-zi-lu/nu-zoo-lan

 

to descend / come down

ن ز ل

 (ض)

As-Saaffaat - Verse 98

 

فَأَرَادُوا بِهِ كَيْدًا فَجَعَلْنَاهُمُ الْأَسْفَلِينَ

 

And they intended for him a plan, but We made them the most debased.

أَرَادَ/ يُرِيْدُ/ إِرَادَةً

 

Araa-da/yu-ree-du/iraa-da-tan

 

to intend, to desire, to want, to wish

رَادَ/ يَرُوْدُ/ رَوْدًا

 

Raa-da/ya-roo-du/raw-dan

 

to walk about / look or search for

ر و د

 (ن)

Al-Fil - Verse 3

 

وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ

 

And He sent against them birds in flocks

أَرْسَلَ/ يُرْسِلُ/ إِرْسَالًا

 

Ar-sa-la/yur-si-lu/ir-saa-lan

 

to send / dispatch / discharge / let flow

رَسِلَ/ يَرْسَلُ/ رِسَالَةً

 

Ra-si-la/yur-sa-lu/ri-saa-la-tan

 

to be long and flowing/smooth in pace also letter/ magazine

ر س ل

 (س)

Al-A'laa - Verse 4

 

وَالَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الْمَرْعَىٰ

 

And who brings out the pasture

أَخْرَجَ/ يُخْرِجُ/ إِخْرَاجًا

 

Akh-ra-ja/yukh-ri-ju/ikh-raa-jan

 

to send out/bring out/exclude/expell/deport/ produce

خرج/ يَخْرُجُ/ خُرُوج

 

Kha-ra-ja/yakh-ru-ju/khu-roo-jan

 

to exit / go out / leave

خ ر ج

 (ن)

An-Nisaa - Verse 80

 

مَّن يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ

 

He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah

أَطَاعَ/ يُطِيْعُ/ إِطَاعَةً

 

Ataa-aa/yu-tee-u/itaa-atan

 

to obey /comply /conform/pay attention (willingly) /be influenced

طَاعَ/ يَطُوْعُ/ طَاعَةً ، طَوْعً

 

Ta-aa/yatoo-u/taa-atan, taw-an

 

to obey/ comply/ conform/be obedient (willingly)

ط و ع

 (ن)

Az-Zalzala - Verse 5

 

بِأَنَّ رَبَّكَ أَوْحَىٰ لَهَا

 

Because your Lord has commanded it

أَوْحَىٰ/ يُوْحِيْ/ إِيْحَاءً

 

Aw-haa/yu-hee/ee-haa-an

 

to communicate, inform by revelation/by suggestion/by hinting/instigate/inspire

وَحٰى/ يَحِي/ وَحْيًا

 

Wa-haa/ya-hee/wa-hee-yan

 

to communicate with sign, sound or writing

و ح ي

 (ض)

Al-Kahf - Verse 38

 

لَّٰكِنَّا هُوَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي وَلَا أُشْرِكُ بِرَبِّي أَحَدًا

 

But as for me, He is Allah, my Lord, and I do not associate with my Lord anyone

أَشْرَكَ/يُشْرِكُ/إِشْرَاكًا

 

Ash-ra-ka/yush-ri-ku/ish-raa-kan

 

to associate / set partners / give share

شَرِكَ/يُشْرِكُ/شِرْكًا، شِرْكَةً

 

Sha-ri-ka/yash-ri-ku/shir-kan, shir-ka-tan

 

to share / be a partner

ش ر ك

 (س)

Al-Mulk - Verse 7

 

إِذَا أُلْقُوا فِيهَا سَمِعُوا لَهَا شَهِيقًا وَهِيَ تَفُورُ

 

When they are thrown into it, they hear from it, a [dreadful] inhaling while it boils up

أَلْقَىٰٓ/يُلْقِي/إِلْقَاءً

 

Al-qaa/yul-qee/il-qaa-an

 

to cast, to throw, to meet, to offer

لَقِيَ/يُلْقٰى/لِقَاءً

 

La-qi-ya/yul-qaa/li-qaa-an

 

to meet / encounter (good or bad)

ل ق ي

 (س)

Al-Baqara - Verse 3

 

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

 

and spend out of what We have provided for them

أَنفَقَ/يُنْفِقُ/إِنْفَاقًا

 

An-fa-qa/yun-fi-qu/in-faa-qan

 

to spend /expend / disburse / layout

نَفِقَ/يَنْفَقُ/نَفْقًا، نِفَاقًا

 

Na-fi-qa-yan-fa-qu/naf-qan

 

to be spent/used up/perish/sell well (active market)

ن ف ق

 (س،ن)

Yusuf - Verse 8

 

إِذْ قَالُوا لَيُوسُفُ وَأَخُوهُ أَحَبُّ إِلَىٰ أَبِينَا

 

When they said, "Joseph and his brother are more beloved to our father than we

أَحَبَّ/يُحِبُّ، يُحْبِبُ

 

Ahab-ba/yu-hub-bu

 

to love, to like, adore

حَبَّ/يُحِبُّ/حُبًّا، مُحَبَّةً

 

Hab-ba/yu-hib-bu/mu-hab-ba-tan

 

to love / like

ح ب ب

 (ض)

Al-Baqara - Verse 156

 

الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ

 

Who, when disaster strikes them

أَصَابَ/يُصِيْبُ/ إِصَابَةً

 

Asaa-ba/yu-dee-bu/isaa-ba-tan

 

to afflict /befall /hit /strike /reach /make fall /bestow /allot

صَابَ/يَصُوْبْ/ صَوْبًا

 

Saa-ba/ya-soo-bu/saw-ban

 

to hit the mark / be right

ص و ب

 (ن)

Yaseen - Verse 62

 

وَلَقَدْ أَضَلَّ مِنكُمْ جِبِلًّا كَثِيرًا

 

And he had already led astray from among you much of creation

أَضَلَّ/يُضِلُّ/إِضْلَالًا

 

Adal-la/yu-dil-lu/iz-laa-lan

 

to let go astray, to mislead

ضَلَّ/يُضِلُّ/ضِلَالً، ضِلَالَةً

 

Dal-la/yu-dil-lu/di-laa-la-tan

 

to go astray / get lost / be in error

ض ل ل

 (ض)

 

 

 

***


 

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