; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/12.4 - Form III. مُفَاعَلًةً

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9/12.4 - Form III. مُفَاعَلًةً



 

Section 12.4 - Form III. مُفَاعَلًةً Mufaa-‘ala

 

Form III is called مُفَاعَلًةً mufaa-‘ala-tan.Past tense of this form is فَاعَلَ faa-‘alaand imperfect tense is يُفَاعِلُ yufaa-‘ilu and its source مَصْدَرٌ Masdar is مُفَاعَلًةً mu-faa-'ala-tan. The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to that of being associated in an action which has an Actor/Subject (فَاعِلٌ faa-'i-lun) and a object (مَفْعُوْلٌ maf-'oo-lun). For example, نَفَقَ na-fa-qa to نَافَقَ naa-fa-qa. نَفَقَ na-fa-qa means to hide/get spent. When changed to نَافَقَ naa-fa-qa, it means to become a hypocrite. This is another form that has been used in Al-Qur’an. The inflections for this are also processed exactly as we did for the trilateral roots as shown in the table below:

 

Table 72 - Form III Past tense فَاعَلَ(faa-‘ala) Inflections

 

 

 

 

Single

 

 

Dual

 

 

Plural

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

فَاعَلَ

 

Faa-‘ala

2

فَاعَلَا

 

Faa-‘alaa

3

فَاعَلُوْا

 

Faa-‘aloo

Female

4

فَاعَلَتْ

 

Faa-‘alat

5

فَاعَلَتَا

 

Faa-‘ala-

taa

6

فَاعَلْنَ

 

Faa-al-

‘na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

فَاعَلْتَ

 

Faa-‘al-

taa

8

فَاعَلْتُمَا

 

Faa-‘al-tu-maa

9

فَاعَلْتُمْ

 

Faa-‘al-

tum

female

10

فَاعَلْتِ

 

Faa-‘al-ti

11

فَاعَلْتُمَا

 

Faa-‘al-tu-maa

12

فَاعَلْتُنَّ

 

Faa-‘al-

tun-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

13

فَاعَلْتُ

 

faa-‘al-tu

14

فَاعَلْنَا

 

Faa-‘al-naa

 

Table 73 Form III Imperfect Tense يُفَاعِلُ (yu-faa-ee-lu) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

single

 

dual

 

plural

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

يُفَاعَلُ

 

Yu-faa-‘a-

lu

6

يُفَاعَلَانِ

 

Yu-faa

-‘ala-ni

10

يُفَاعَلُوْنَ

 

Yau-fa-

‘aloo-na

Female

2

تُفَاعَلُ

 

Tu-faa-‘a

-lu

7

تُفَاعَلَانِ

 

Tu-faa

-‘alaa-ni

11

يُفَاعَلْنَ

 

Yu-faa-

‘ul-na

Present

2nd person

Male

3

تُفَاعَلُ

 

Tu-faa-

‘alu

8

تُفَاعَلَانِ

 

Tu-faa

-‘alaa-ni

12

تُفاَعَلْوْنَ

 

Tuf-aa-

‘aloona

female

14

تُفَاعَلِينَ

 

Tu-faa-

‘alee-na

9

تُفَاعَلَانِ

 

Tu-faa

-‘alaa-ni

13

تُفَاعَلْنَ

 

Tu-faa-

al-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

اُفَاعَلُ

 

U-faa-

‘alu

 

5

نُفَاعَلُ

 

Nu-faa-‘alu

 

Table 74 - Form III فَاعَلَ/ يُفَاعَلُ Examples

 

Qur’anic Example

four – alphabet Form III word and meaning

three – alphabet root word and meaning

Three – alphabet root

Al-Baqara - Verse 190

 

وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

 

Fight in the way of Allah

قَاتَلَ/ يُقَاتِلُ/ قِتَالًا

 

Qaa-ta-la/yu-qaa-ti-lu/qi-taa-lan

 

To fight/ to battle/

wage war with someone

قَتَلَ/يَقْتُلُ/قَتْلًا

 

Qa-ta-la/yaq-tu-lu/qat-lan

 

To kill

ق ت ل

 (ن)

As-Saaffaat - Verse 104

 

وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَن يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ

 

We called to him, "O Abraham,

نَادَىٰ/يُنَادِيْ/نِدَاءً

 

Naa-da/yu-naa-di/nidaa-an

 

To call out/ summon/ address someone

نَدَا/يَنْدُوْ/نَدْوًا

 

Na-da/yandoo/nad-wan

 

To call

ن د و

 (ن)

Al-Anfaal - Verse 74

 

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

 

But those who have believed and emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah

جَاهَدَ/ يُجَاهِدُ

/مُجَاهِدَةً، جِهَادًا

Ja-ha-da/yu-jaa-hi-du/mu-jaa-hi-datan, Ji-haa-dan

 

To struggle/ strive/ make effort against something/somebody

جَهَدَ/يَجْهَدُ/ جَهْدًا

 

 

Ja-ha-da/yaj-ha-du/jah-dan

 

to strive

ج ه د

 (ف)

Al-Hajj - Verse 68

وَإِن جَادَلُوكَ فَقُلِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ

And if they dispute with you, then say, "Allah is most knowing of what you do.

جَادَلَ/ يُجَادِلُ/ مُجَادِلَةً ،جِدَالًا

 

Jaa-da-la/yu-jaa-di-lu/mu-jaa-di-latan

 

to argue / debate / dispute with someone

جَدَلَ/يَجْدُلُ/ جَدْلًا

 

Ja-da-la/yaj-du-lu/jad-lan

 

to tighten

ج د ل

 (ن/ض)

Al-Anfaal - Verse 72

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ

 

Indeed, those who have believed and emigrated and fought with their wealth and lives in the cause of Allah

هَاجَرَ/ يُهَاجِرُ / مُهَاجِرًا

 

Haa-ja-ra/yu-haa-ti-ru/mu-haa-ji-ran

 

to emigrate with others

هَجَرَ/يَهجُرُ/

هِجْرًا،هِجرَةً

 

Ha-ja-ra/yah-ju-ru/hij-ran, hij-ra-tan

 

To emigrate

ه ج ر

 (ن)

Al-Baqara - Verse 258

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ

 

Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord

حَآجَّ/ يُحَآجُّ/ مُحَآجَّةً

 

Haaj-ja/yu-haaj-ju/mu-haaj-ja-tun

 

to argue / debate / contest / dispute

حَجَّ/يَحُجُّ/حُجَّةً

 

Haj-ja/ya-huj-ju/huj-ja-tan

 

To defeat/ overcome/to perform hajj

ح ج ج

 (ن)

At-Tawba - Verse 75

 

وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ عَاهَدَ اللَّهَ

 

And among them are those who made a covenant with Allah

عَاهَدَ/ يُعَاهِدُ/ مُعَاهِدَةً

 

aa-ha-da/yu-aa-hi-du/mu-hida-tun

 

to mutually commit / agree / make a treaty

عَهِدَ/يَعْهَدُ/عَهْدًا

 

a-hi-da/ya-ha-du/ah-dan

 

to delegate/ entrust / commit/ assign/ agree

ع ه د

 (س)

Al-Baqara - Verse 225

 

لَّا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ

 

Allah does not impose blame upon you for what is unintentional

اٰخَذَ/يُؤَاخِذُ/ مُؤَاخِذَةً

 

aa-kha-za/yu-wa-khi-zu/mu-waa-khi-za-tan

 

to blame/ criticize/ punish/ take to task somebody

أَخَذَ/يَأخُذُ/أَخْذًا

 

Akha-za/yaa-khu-zu/akh-zan

 

to take/get hold/seize/ grab

ء خ ذ

 (ن)

Al-Muminoon - Verse 61

أُولَٰئِكَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ

 

 

It is those who hasten to good deeds,

سَارِعَ/ يُسَارِعُ/ مُسَارِعةً

 

 

Saa-ra-aa/yu-saa-ri-u/mu-saa-ri-atan

 

to make haste / rush / hurry with others

سَرُعَ/ يَسْرُعُ/ سَرْعَةً

 

Sa-ru-aa/yas-ru-u/sar-atan

 

to be quick / accelerate / speed up

س ر ع

 (ك)

Al-Furqaan - Verse 69

 

يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

 

Multiplied for him is the punishment on the Day of Resurrection

ضَاعَفَ/ يُضَاعِفُ

/ مُضَاعَفَةً

 

Daa-afa/yu-daa-i-fu/mu-daa-afa-tan

 

to double / redouble / compound / multiply

ضَعُفَ/ يَضْعُفُ/ ضُعْفًا

 

Da-u-fa/yad-u-fu-du-gan

 

to double/ to be weak / feeble / frail / deficient

ض ع ف

 (ك)

Ar-Rahmaan - Verse 78

 

تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِي الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ

 

Blessed is the name of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor.

بَارَكَ/ يُبَارِكُ/ مُبَارَكَةً

 

Baa-ra-ka/yu-baa-ri-ku/mu-ba-katan

 

to increase in goodness/bless (exceed and mulitply)

بَرَكَ/يَبْرُكُ/بُرُوْكًا

 

Ba-ra-ka/yab-ru-ku/bu-roo-kan

 

To kneel down

ب ر ك

 (ن)

Al-Qamar - Verse 37

 

وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدُوهُ عَن ضَيْفِهِ

 

And they had demanded from him his guests

رَاوَدَ/يُرَاوِدُ/ مُرَاوَدَةً

 

Raa-wa-da/yu-raa-widu/mu-ra-wa-da-tan

 

to demand/ lure / tempt / seduce / entice / win over

رَادَ/يَرُوْدُ/رَوْدًا

 

Raa-da/ya-roo-du/raw-dan

 

to walk about / look or search for

ر و د

 (ن)

Al-Anfaal - Verse 13

 

 

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَاقُّوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ

 

That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger.

شَآقَّ/ يُشاقُّ/ مُشَاقَّةً

 

Shaaq-qa/yu-shaaq-qu/mu-shaaq-qatan

 

to turn against/ turn hostile/ oppose/ break away

شَقَّ/يَشُقُّ/

مَشَقَّةً

 

Shaq-qa/ya-shuq-qu/ma-shaq-qa-tan

 

to split apart/crack/cleave/tear/be hard/ burdensome

ش ق ق

 (ن)

 

 

 

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