; An English Guide to Classic Qur'anic Arabic: 9/12.3 - Form II. تَفْعِيْلًا taf-ee-lan

RC

global site tag

9/12.3 - Form II. تَفْعِيْلًا taf-ee-lan



Section 12.3 - Form II. تَفْعِيْلًا taf-ee-lan

 

Form II is called تَفْعِيْلًا(taf-ee-lan).  Past tense of this form is فَعَّلَ (fa’-a-la) and imperfect tense is يُفَعِّلُ (yufa’-i-loo) and its source (Masdar) is تَفْعِيْلًا taf-ee-lan. The benefit of this form is that it also changes the meaning of the Verb from normal action to a causative action or in other words from intransitive to transitive. For example, نَزَلَ na-za-la to نَزَّلَ naz-za-la. نَزَلَ na-za-la means to descend/ comedown. When changed to نَزَّلَ naz-za-la, it means to bring down/send down. This is different from form IV in the sense that here the action is not gradual but rather in the meaning of bringing down/sending down all at once.

This is the another frequently used form in Al-Qur’an. The inflections for this are also processed exactly as we did for the trilateral roots as shown in the table below:

 

Table 69Form II Past tense فَعَّلَ (fa’-a-la) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

Single

 

Dual

 

Plural

 

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

فَعَّلَ

 

Fa’-ala

2

فَعَّلَا

 

Fa’-alaa

3

فَعَّلُوْا

 

Fa’-aloo

Female

4

فَعَّلَتْ

 

Fa’-al-tu

5

فَعَّلَتَا

 

Fa’-al-ta

6

فَعَّلْنَ

 

Fa’-al-na

Present

2nd person

Male

7

فَعَّلْتَ

 

Fa’-alat

8

فَعَّلْتُمَا

 

F’a-al-tu-

maa

 

9

فَعَّلْتُمْ

 

Fa’-al-tum

female

10

فَعَّلْتِ

 

Fa’-al-ti

11

فَعَّلْتُمَا

 

Fa’-al-tu-

maa

12

فَعَّلْتُنَّ

 

Fa’-al-tun-

na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

13

فَعَّلْتُ

 

Fa’-al-tu

14

فَعَّلْنَا

 

Fa’-al-naa

 

Table 70 Form II Imperfect Tense يُفَعِّلُ (yufa’i-lu) Inflections

 

 

Gender

 

Single

 

 

 

Dual

 

 

 

Plural

 

 

Absent

3rd person

Male

1

يُفَعِّلُ

 

Yu-fa’

ilu

6

يُفَعِّلَانِ

 

Yu-fa’

alaa-ni

10

يُفَعِّلُوْنَ

 

Yu-fa’

aloo-na

Female

2

تُفَعِّلُ

 

Tu-fa’

ilu

7

تُفَعِّلَانِ

 

tu-fa’

alaa-ni

11

يُفَعِّلْنَ

 

Yu-fa’

alna

Present

2nd person

Male

3

تُفَعِّلُ

 

Tu-fa’

ilu

8

تُفَعِّلَانِ

 

tu-fa’

alaa-ni

12

تُفَعِّلْوْنَ

 

tu-fa’

aloo-na

female

14

تُفَعِّلِينَ

 

Tu-fa’

ilee-na

9

تُفَعِّلَانِ

 

tu-fa’

alaa-ni

13

تُفَعِّلْنَ

 

tu-fa’

al-na

Speaker

1st person

Male/

female

4

اُفَعِّلُ

 

oo-fa’

alu

 

5

نُفَعِّلُ

 

Nu-fa’-alu

 

 

Table 71 - Form II يُفَعِّل فَعَّلَ/ Examples

 

 

Qur’anic Example

four alphabet Form II word and meaning

three alphabet root word and meaning

Three alphabet root

At-Tin - Verse 7

فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ بَعْدُ بِالدِّينِ

So, what yet causes you to deny the Recompense?

 

كَذَّبَ/ يُكَذِّبُ/ تَكْذِيْبًا

Kaz-za-ba/yu-kaz-ai-bu/tak-zee-nab

 

to deny / disbelieve

كَذَبَ/ يكْذِبُ/ كَذِبًا

Ka-za-ba/yuk-zi-bu/kazi-ban

 

to lie / falsify

ك ذ ب

 (ض)

Al-Insaan - Verse 23

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ تَنزِيلًا

Indeed, it is We who have sent down to you, [O Muhammad], the Qur'an progressively.

نَزَّلَ/ يُنزِّلُ/ تنَزَيْلًا

Naz-za-la/yu-naz-zi-lu/tan-zee-lan

 

to send down gradually, to reveal

نَزَلَ/ يَنْزِلُ/ نُزُوْلًا

Na-za-la/yun-zi-lu/nu-zoo-lan

to descend / come down

ن ز ل

 (ض)

Al-Qiyaama - Verse 13

يُنَبَّأُ الْإِنسَانُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ

Man will be informed that Day of what he sent ahead and kept back.

نَبَّأَ/ يُنبِّئُ/ تَنْبِئً

Nab-ba-aa/yu-nab-bi-u/ta-nab-bi-yan

to inform/ apprise/ notify thoroughly)  foretell/ predict

نَبَأَ/ ينبَؤْ/ نَبْأً

Na-ba-aa/yam-ba-u/nab-an

to be high/ prominent / overcome/ turn away

ن ب أ

 (ف)

Al-Hashr - Verse 1

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth exalts Allah

سَبَّحَ/يُسَبِّحُ/

تَسْبِيْحًا

Sab-ba-ha/yu-sab-bi-hu/tas-bee-han

To declare/ praise/ glorify/ float

سَبَحَ/يَسْبَحُ/سِبَاحةً

Sa-ba-ha/yas-bi-hu-si-baa-ha-tan

to float/swim/ be pre-occupied/ immersed/ praise

س ب ح

 (ف)

Al-Ghaashiya - Verse 24

فَيُعَذِّبُهُ اللَّهُ الْعَذَابَ الْأَكْبَرَ

Then Allah will punish him with the greatest punishment

عَذَّبَ/ يُعَذِّبُ/ تَعْذِيْبًا

Azza-ba/yu-az-zi-bu/ta-zee-ban

to torture / punish / chastise / torment

عَذَبَ/يَعْذِبُ/ عَذْبًا

a-za-ba/ya-zi-bu/az-nan

to impede / obstruct

ع ذ ب

 (ك،ض)

Ar-Rahmaan - Verse 2

عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ

Taught the Qur'an

عَلَّمَ/ يُعلِّمُ/ تَعْلِيْمًا

Al-lama/yu-al-li-mu/ta-lee-man

to teach

عَلِمَ/ يَعَلَمُ/ عَلِمًا

Ali-ma/ya-la-mu/il-man

to know /be aware of /be cognizant of

ع ل م

 (س)

At-Tahrim - Verse 1

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ

O Prophet, why do you prohibit [yourself from] what Allah has made lawful for you

حَرَّمَ/ يُحرِّم/ تَحْرِيْمًا

Har-ra-ma/yu-har-ri-mu/tah-ree-man

to prohibit/

forbid/make unlawful/

declare sacred/

abstain/

refrain

حَرَمَ/ يَحَرِمُ/ حِرْمًا

Hara-ma-yah-ri-mu/hir-man

to be prohibited /deprived /dispossessed /excluded

ح ر م

 (ض،ك،س)

As-Saaffaat - Verse 112

وَبَشَّرْنَاهُ بِإِسْحَاقَ نَبِيًّا مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

And We gave him good tidings of Isaac, a prophet from among the righteous

بَشِّرَ/ يُبْشِّرُ/ تَبْشِيْرًا

Bash-sha-ra/yu-bash-shi-ru/tab-shee-ran

to give good news / congratulate

بَشَرَ/ يَبْشِرُ/ بُشْرًا

Ba-sha-ra/yab-shi-ru/bush-ran

to rejoice/be delighted/ sprout/be manifest/ peel

ب ش ر

 (ض،س)

Fussilat - Verse 18

وَنَجَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ

And We saved those who believed and used to fear Allah

نَجَّىٰ/ يُنَجِّيْ/ تَنْجِيَةً

 

Naj-jaa/yu-naj-jee/tan-jia-tan

to rescue / save <someone> / deliver

نَجَا/ يَنْجُوْ/ نَجَاءً

Naja/yan-ju/na-jaa-an

to be saved / escape / to confide a secret

ن ج و

 (ن)

Al-Maaida - Verse 89

كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Thus, does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be grateful

بَيَّنَ/يُبَيِّنُ/تَبْيِيْنًا

Baiy-ya-na/yu-baiy-ya-nu/tab-ee-nan

to clarify/show explain/ demonstrate/ throw light

بَانَ/يَبِيْنُ/بَيَانًا

Baa-na-ya-bee-nu/bayan-an

 

To separate/

Be clear

ب ي ن

 (ض)

Al-Qamar - Verse 45

سَيُهْزَمُ الْجَمْعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ الدُّبُرَ

[Their] assembly will be defeated, and they will turn their backs [in retreat]

وَلَّىٰ/يُولِّي/ تَوْلِيَةً

Wal-laa/yu-wal-li/tau-li-ya-tan

to turn / retreat / recoil / assign / appoint

وَلِيَ/يَلِيْ/وَليًا

Wa-li-ya/yal-i/wa-li-yan

to follow/ succeed/ govern/lie next to/be near/be a friend/be loyal

و ل ي

 (ح)

Al-Fajr - Verse 24

يَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي قَدَّمْتُ لِحَيَاتِي

He will say, "Oh, I wish I had sent ahead [some good] for my life."

قَدَّمَ/يُقَدِّمُ/ تَقْدِيْمًا

Qad-dama-yu-qad-di-mu/taq-dee-man

to send ahead/ forward/ advance/ invest/ present/serve/offer

قَدِمَ/يَقْدَمُ/ قَدْمًا، مَقْدَمًا

Qa-di-ma/yaq-da-mu/qad-man, maq-da-man

to arrive/reach/be old/ancient//proceed/ be in front

ق د م

 (س،ن،ك)

Al-Mulk - Verse 5

وَلَقَدْ زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ

And We have certainly beautified the nearest heaven with stars

زَيَّنَ/يُزِيِّنُ/تَزيِينًا

Zaiy-ya-na/yu-Zaiy-yi-nu/taz-ee-nan

to beautify / decorate / embellish / adorn

زَانَ/يَزِيْنُ/زِيْنَةً

Zaa-na-ya-zee-nu/zee-na-tan

to adorn / decorate

ز ي ن

 (ض)

Al-Baqara - Verse 59

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ

But those who wrongly changed [those words] to a statement other than that which had been said to them

بَدَّلَ/ يُبَدِّلُ/ تَبْدِيْلًا

Tabad-da-la/yu-bad-di-lu/tab-dee-lan

to replace/ change/ exchange/ substitute (piecemeal)

بَدَلَ/ يَبْدُلُ/ بَدْلًا

Ba-da-la/yab-du-lu/bad-lan

to replace / switch / shift / substitute /exchange

ب د ل

 (ن)

Ar-Ra'd - Verse 2

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ

then He established Himself above the Throne and subdued the sun and the moon

سَخَّرَ/ يُسَخِّرُ/ تَسْخِيْرًا

Sakh-kha-ra/yu-sakh-kha-ru/tas-khee-ran

to subdue /employ/ subject/ bring to submission

سَخِرَ/ يَسْخَرُ/ سَخَرًا، مَسَخَرًا

Sa-khi-ra/as-kha-ru/sakh-ran/mas-kha-ran

to mock / ridicule / deride / scoff at / jeer

س خ ر

 (س)

An-Nisaa - Verse 164

وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا

And Allah spoke to Moses with [direct] speech

كَلَّمَ/ يُكَلِّمُ/ تَكْلِيْمًا

Kal-la-ma/yu-kal-li-mu/tak-lee-man

to speak / talk / address

كَلَمَ/ يَكْلَمُ/ كَلَمًا

Ka-la-ma/yak-la-mu/kal-man

to injure / wound/to address

ك ل م

 (ف)

Al-A'laa - Verse 10

سَيَذَّكَّرُ مَن يَخْشَىٰ

He who fears [Allah] will be reminded

ذَكَّرَ/ يُذكِّرُ/ تَذْكِيْرًا

Zak-kara/yu-zak-ki-ru/taz-kee-ran

to remind / call to attention / masculinize

ذَكَرَ/ يَذْكُرُ/ ذِكْرًا

Za-ka-ra/yaz-ki-ru/zik-ran

to mention / remember

ذ ك ر

 (ن)

Ash-Shu'araa - Verse 207

مَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يُمَتَّعُونَ

They would not be availed by the enjoyment with which they were provided

 

مَّتَّعَ/ يُمَتِّعُ/ تَمْتِيْعًا

Mat-ta-aa/yu-mat-ti-u/tam-tee-an

to supply / provide enjoyment / give provisions

مَتَعَ/ يَمْتَعُ/ مُتَعْةً

Ma-ta-a/yam-ta-u/mu-ta-tan

to take away / carry away

م ت ع

 (ف)

Hud - Verse 15

نُوَفِّ إِلَيْهِمْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ

يْ (

is dropped from) hereيُوَفِّيْ

 

We fully repay them for their deeds

وَفَّىٰٓ/ يُوَفِّيْ/ تَوْفِيَةً

Waf-faa/yaf-ee/wa-faa-tan, wa-faa-an

to give in full / pay in full

وَفٰى/ يَفِيْ/ وَفَاةً،وَفَاءً

Wa-faa/ya-fee/wa-faa-tan, wa-faa-an

to fulfill/ redeem/ live up to/be perfect/ die

و ف ي

 (ض)

Al-An'aam - Verse 98

قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ

We have detailed the signs for a people who understand

فَصَّلَ/ يُفصِّلُ/ تَفْصِيْلًا

Fas-sa-la/yu-fas-si-lu/taf-see-lan

to elaborate/ be detailed/ make clear/ separate

فَصَلَ/ يُفْصِلُ/ فَصْلًا فُصُوْلًا,

Fa-sa-la/yuf-si-lu/fu-soo-lan

to separate/ set apart/ decide/ detach/ dismiss/ sack

ف ص ل

 (ض)

 

 

 

***


No comments:

Post a Comment